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Liu Z.,Guangxi Medical University | Que S.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | Xu J.,Guangxi Medical University | Peng T.,Guangxi Medical University
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a common, readily available, and inexpensive laboratory assay in clinical practice. ALT activity is not only measured to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. ALT activity is influenced by various factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and medication. Recently, the impact of metabolic abnormalities on ALT variation has raised concern due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The normal ranges for ALT have been updated and validated considering the metabolic covariates in the various ethnic districts. The interaction between metabolic and demographic factors on ALT variation has also been discussed in previous studies. In addition, an extremely low ALT value might reflect the process of aging, and frailty in older adults has been raised as another clinically significant feature of this enzyme, to be followed with additional epidemiologic investigation. Timely updated, comprehensive, and systematic introduction of ALT activity is necessary to aid clinicians make better use of this enzyme. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Liu Z.,Guangxi Medical University | Ning H.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | Que S.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | Que S.,Guangxi Medical University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: Controversy exists in using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity for predicting long-term survival. Therefore, this research study investigated the association between ALT activity and mortality through a systematic review and metaanalysis of previous prospective studies. Methods: Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), were searched for relevant prospective observational studies (published before Dec 30, 2013) on the association between baseline ALT activity and ensuing all-cause/disease-specific mortality. Information on nationality, sample size, participant characteristics, follow-up duration, comparison, outcome assessment, hazard ratios (HRs) and adjusted covariates was extracted. Pooled HRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were separately calculated for categorical risk estimates (highest vs. lowest ALT categories) and continuous risk estimates (per 5 U/l of ALT increment) in subgroups separated by age (<70/≥70 years). Results: A total of twelve prospective cohort studies, totaling 206,678 participants and 16,249 deaths, were identified and analyzed. In the younger age group, the pooled HR for mortality related to liver-disease was about 1.24 (95% CI: 1.23-1.25) per 5 U/l of ALT increment. The dose-response HRs of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality were 0.91 (0.88-0.94), 0.91 (0.85-0.96), 0.92 (0.86-0.98) respectively per 5 U/l of ALT elevation, with insignificant heterogeneity in the older population. There was an approximate decrease of 4% observed on HRs of all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality followed with one year's increment through meta-regression (all P<0.05). Conclusions: The ALT-mortality association was inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age after synthesizing the previous prospective studies. In terms of the age, ALT activity was more valuable in predicting mortality in the older population; extremely low ALT levels indicated a higher all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality. ALT activity may therefore be a useful biomarker when predicting the long-term survival of elderly patients. © 2014 Liu et al. Source

Liu Z.,Guangxi Medical University | Que S.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | Que S.,Guangxi Medical University | Ning H.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods/Principal Findings: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I2<50%), the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14) when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16) in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l) of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT). Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55) than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. Conclusions/Significance: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of ALT activity on MetS occurrence. © 2013 Liu et al. Source

Liu Z.,Zhejiang University | Liu Z.,Key Laboratory of Combined Multi organ Transplantation | Liu Z.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases | Ning H.,Women and Childrens Hospital of Guangxi | And 5 more authors.
Personalized Medicine | Year: 2015

Aim: To evaluate potential link between the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels through an evidence-based study. Materials & Methods: Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase and the Institute for Scientific Information, were searched for relevant studies. Pooling standardized mean differences for quantitative variables and summary odds ratios (OR) were respectively calculated using per-allele comparison. Results: Although a genotype-phenotype association was inconsistent in adults, this genetic effect was stable in adolescents. There was an approximate increase of 23% in ALT value, and 1.99-fold higher ALT elevation per risk allele increase with low heterogeneity. Conclusion: The PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism can have a differentiated influence on ALT level. Our meta-analysis provides reference data for the adjustment of diverse susceptibility due to the rs738409 polymorphism when evaluating liver injury in various populations. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

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