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Wollongong, Australia

Van Drie R.,Burrapine | Milevski P.,Wollongong City Council | Simon M.,Hydro Sim
Proceedings of the 34th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, HWRS 2012

The shallow water wave (SWW) equation is well known for its applications in shallow water hydraulics such as resolving flow behaviour in river and floodplain systems. In addition various solution approaches exist that may utilise finite difference, finite element, finite volume and volume of fluid approaches. However up until recently, the ability of the SWW equation to properly resolve catchment hydrology has been questioned. It is known that some approaches are more unstable than others. This paper puts forward findings using a Finite Volume approach that has shown itself to remarkably stable and accurate. Comparison with a well known and accepted hydrologic model provide for very similar results. In fact it is likely that the SWW equation approach may be more realistic than the lumped hydrologic modelling approach. A number of catchments will be shown over a range of size and complexity all showing very promising results. ©2012 Engineers Australia. Source

Van Drie R.,Burrapine | Milevski P.,Wollongong City Council | Roberts S.,Australian National University | Simon M.,Hydro Sim
Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium 2014, HWRS 2014 - Conference Proceedings

Accurate flood modeling is reliant on a well validated hydrologic model balanced with hydraulic models capable of representing realistic flood flows as a result of rainfall over the catchment. However nearly all calibration/validation models of real recorded events are reliant on only extremely sparse recorded rainfall data from representative rain gauges. However for several years now radar data has been available but is scarcely used. This papers reports on the ongoing development of the ANUGA model with the addition of a (X,Y,t) spatial grid format which allows grided rainfall time series to be used as input. Using radar rainfall data provides for a far more variable and likely realistic representation of spatial and temporally varying rainfall. Hence the resulting runoff response should also be far more realistic. Testing using radar rainfall calibrated against rain gauges is showing very beneficial outcomes of this approach over simply adopting rain gauge data and traditional distribution methods such as Thiessen weighting. In addition the ability of this model to apply the rainfall directly to 3D terrain over the entire catchment to resolve the hydraulics provides for a very robust and stream lined approach to complex catchment hydrology and hydraulics. This methodology is being applied to model all catchments contributing to flow in the ACT, and is also being applied to large catchment in Germany. Source

Mullaney T.J.,University of New South Wales | Miskiewicz A.G.,Wollongong City Council | Baird M.E.,University of Technology, Sydney | Burns P.T.P.,University of New South Wales | Suthers I.M.,University of New South Wales
Fisheries Oceanography

Entrainment and transport of larval fish assemblages by the East Australian Current (EAC) were examined from the coastal waters of northern New South Wales (NSW) to the western Tasman Front, via the separation of the EAC from the coast, during the austral spring of 2004. Shore-normal transects from the coast to the EAC off northern NSW revealed an inner shelf assemblage of near-shore families (Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Platycephalidae and Triglidae), an EAC assemblage dominated by Myctophidae and Gonostomatidae, and a broadly distributed assemblage over the continental shelf dominated by Scombridae and Carangidae. Further south and after the EAC had separated from the coast, we observed a western Tasman Front assemblage of inner shelf and shelf families (Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Serranidae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Bothidae and Macroramphosidae). The abundance of these families declined with distance from the coast. Surprisingly, there was no distinctive or abundant larval fish assemblage in the chlorophyll- and zooplankton-enriched waters of the Tasman Sea. Water type properties (temperature-salinity, T-S), the larval fish assemblages and family-specific T-S signatures revealed the western Tasman Front to be an entrained mix of EAC and coastal water types. We found an abundance of commercially important species including larval sardine (Sardinops sagax, Clupeidae), blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus, Scombridae) and anchovy (Engraulis australis, Engraulidae). The entrainment and transport of larval fish from the northern inner shelf to the western Tasman Front by the EAC reflects similar processes with the Gulf Stream Front and the Kuroshio Extension. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Tobin P.R.,Wollongong City Council
Australian Geomechanics Journal

The Wollongong City Local Government Area has records of slope instability dating back to early settlement. Following very rapid growth of the city in the post war years there was little good developable land left and marginal land became progressively more attractive to developers. In 1974 and 1975 periods of prolonged as well as very intense rainfall resulted in extensive hillside instability. Many houses were lost and litigation followed. As consent authority and without clear guidelines on the development of hillside land Council fared poorly in court. In response, Council quickly sought and received legal advice with respect to what it needed to do to fulfil its legal responsibilities and duties as the consent authority. The legal advice made it very clear that Council is exposed to actionable negligence where it fails to consider whether the land to be developed has potential slope instability. The legal advice also stated that Council may seek a review by its engineers of the basic facts of the submitted geotechnical information and to set appropriate geotechnical conditions to be applied to the development. On this basis Council is entitled to rely on the submitted geotechnical information and any claim would be unlikely to succeed. It is pointed out that in undertaking this review Council does not have a responsibility to provide professional advice but at the same time must avoid being negligent. The success of Wollongong City Council's geotechnical review process has been demonstrated by Council's minimal legal costs on geotechnical aspects of development since the 1970s. Source

Danielopol D.L.,University of Graz | Baltanas A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Crasquin S.,University of Paris Descartes | Decrouy L.,University of Lausanne | And 21 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

The 1st International Symposiumon Ostracoda (ISO) was held in Naples (1963). The philosophy behind this symposiumand the logical outcome of what is nowknown as the International Research Group on Ostracoda (IRGO) are here reviewed, namely ostracodology over the last 50 years is sociologically analysed. Three different and important historic moments for the scientific achievements of this domain are recognised. The first one, between about 1963 and 1983, is related to applied research for the oil industry aswell as to the great interest in the better description of the marine environment by both zoologists and palaeontologists. Another important aspect during this period was thework by researchers dealing with Palaeozoic ostracods,who had their own discussion group, IRGPO. Gradually, the merger of this latter group with those dealing with post-Palaeozoic ostracods at various meetings improved the communication between the two groups of specialists. A second period was approximately delineated between 1983 and 2003. During this time-slice, more emphasis was addressed to environmental research with topics such as the study of global events and long-term climate change. Ostracodologists profited also from the research "politics" within national and international programmes. Large international research teams emerged using new research methods. During the third period (2003-2013), communication and collaborative research reached a global dimension. Amongst the topics of research we cite the reconstruction of palaeoclimate using transfer functions, the building of large datasets of ostracod distributions for regional and intercontinental studies, and the implementation of actions that should lead to taxonomic harmonisation. Projects within which molecular biological techniques are routinely used, combined with sophisticated morphological information, expanded now in their importance. The documentation of the ostracod description improved through new techniques to visualise morphological details, which stimulated also communication between ostracodologists. Efforts of making available ostracod information through newsletters and electronic media are evoked. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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