Kombolcha, Ethiopia
Kombolcha, Ethiopia

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Mohammed K.,Wollo University | Sahu O.,Wollo University
Environmental Technology and Innovation | Year: 2015

Chromium plays dual role for industry and environment, one side it is important to improve the quality and second side it damages the life. To come out from this problem substitution will be required to maintain both the faces. Keeping this point it was planned to carry out the experiment for reduction and then recovery of chromium from tannery wastewater. For the reduction purpose low cost and waste are used as adsorbent like saw dust, coffee husk and eucalyptus bark was used as adsorbent material. Among all adsorbents eucalyptus shows 99% of adsorption at pH 4, contact time 240 min and mass loading 3.5 g/l. Recovery of chromium was carried out with three different types of membrane among them AFC 99 reverse osmosis membrane shows 99.9% of recovery at optimum pH 6.8, inlet flow rate 0.72m3/h, working pressure 40 bars. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


The town of Kombolcha is found in the northern part of Ethiopia. It contains several large industries that drain their liquid waste to the nearby rivers. To assess the impact of the wastes on irrigation water quality water samples were just taken randomly to be used only as indicators. The samples of water were collected three times from three rivers that are locally called the Leyole Worka and Borkena. These rivers are used as sources of irrigation water for the nearby farmlands. Parameters of pH EC Ca+2 Mg+2 Na+ Cl- CO HCO BO and SAR were monitored in the irrigation water and the soils of the respective irrigated farmlands. Significant concentration differences (at P≤0.05) in these parameters were detected in the two rivers receiving industrial effluents (Leyole and Worka) and they are compared against the control river water (Borkena). The mean values of the parameters in each irrigation water source samples were also compared with FAO guidelines for irrigation water quality. The Leyole and Worka are found to be polluted as compared to the control river (Borkena). Significant quality difference was observed in pH value and Na+ concentrations between the Borkena River and effluent-contaminated irrigation water of the Leyole River. Moreover Na+ HCO and SAR were found to be beyond the safe limits to use in irrigation. Irrigation water from the Worka River was found to be significantly different from the control irrigation water in Na+ Mg+2 and SAR and the Na+ concentration and the values of pH and SAR have been identified to exceed the normal conditions for use in agriculture. The chemical parameters in the irrigation water were also found to have accumulated and changed the soil characteristics of the farmlands. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Hussien H.B.,Wollo University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

The general objective of the study was to calculate the production efficiency of the mixed crop-livestock farmers in two districts of north eastern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were used to analyze the performance of mixed crop and livestock production system and determinants of production efficiencies. For this study, a total of 252 farmers were selected using probability proportional to sample size sampling technique. The non-parametric method DEA was employed to measure production efficiency. The non-parametric methods of efficiency measurement indicated that most farmers in the study area were not efficient suggesting that efficiency improvement is one of the possible avenues for increasing agricultural production with available resource and technology. The mean TE, AE and EE of the household calculated from non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis Variable Returns to Scale (DEAVRS) were 55%, 70% and 40%, respectively. The production efficiency of mixed crop-livestock farming was determined by farm size, livestock ownership, labour availability, off/non-farm income participation, total household asset, total household consumption expenditure and improved technology adoption. This study found that improved agricultural technology adoption increased production efficiency of households. Such actions may, in turn, alleviate the current problem of food insecurity and lead in the long run to economic development.


Sahu O.P.,Wollo University | Yimer S.,Wollo University
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2015

Dye-sensitized solar cell is a promising technology that converts sunlight into electricity, with broad potential in contributing significantly to solve the future energy problem that humans are facing. The use of natural pigments as sensitizing dye for the conversion of solar energy in electricity enhances the economical aspect, as well as is beneficial from the environmental point of view. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCC) were assembled by using natural dye by using two different fruit which contain anthocyanine dye: red grapes and orange. The performance of DSCC is based on natural dyes extracted from fruits.The extracts were characterized using ultraviolet-voltage and typical current-voltage curves were obtained for the cells. The best performance was obtained from red grapes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Faris D.,Wollo University | Yilkal A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Berhe G.,Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate | Kelay B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional epidemiological study followed by vaccination and postvaccinal serum antibody assessment against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in small ruminant population of Awash Fentale District, Afar, Ethiopia, was conducted from September 2006 to June 2007 with the aim of investigating seroprevalence and post-vaccination sero-conversion rate. A total of 1239 sera collected from sheep and goats which were not vaccinated, were screened by using nucleoprotein-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Only 21 (1.70%) animals were found to be positive. Following the base-line seroprevalence study, small ruminants in the area were vaccinated using the attenuated homologous PPR virus (Nigeria 75/1) strain vaccine, produced at National Veterinary Institute (NVI) in Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. A total of 1096 small ruminants were resampled from the vaccinated population fourteen days after vaccination. The postvaccination sero-conversion rate in the population was found to be 61.13%, indicating a relatively weak herd immunity. The main reason for the low sero-conversion could be the thermolabile nature of the vaccine, since no statistically significant difference was observed between small ruminants vaccinated by Veterinary Professionals and Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs), using Chi-squared test at 95% CI (P>0.05). This signifies the need for thermostable vaccine that could potentially increase the herd immunity in addition to that being administered by CAHWs independently. The current finding indicated that CAHWs could participate in vaccination campaigns in such areas as Afar, where there are few veterinarians despite of the huge livestock populations, as means of pastoralists' livelihood. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Delil F.,Wollo University | Delil F.,Madras Veterinary College | Asfaw Y.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Gebreegziabher B.,Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats in Awash Fentale district, Afar, Ethiopia. Small ruminants in the district had poor herd immunity at the first visit and succumb to the disease then after. The seroprevalence during the time of an outbreak was much higher compared with the initial levels: 7. 3% and 42. 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. The higher seroprevalence figure in goats was suggestive of their relative susceptibility to PPR compared with sheep. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Zeleke A.,Wollo University | Chanie T.,Jimma University | Woldie M.,Jimma University
International Archives of Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective. To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to March 17, 2012. Data on the prescribed drugs were collected from patient charts and prescription papers among all patients who were admitted during the study period. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, prevalence, means, and standard deviations. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were computed using logistic regression (with significance declared at p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval). Results: Out of the 384 Medication order s identified during the study, a total of 223 prescribing errors were identified. This corresponds to an overall medication prescribing error rate of 58.07%. Incomplete prescriptions and dosing errors were the two most common types of prescribing errors. Antibiotics (54.26%) were the most common classes of drugs subjected to prescribing error. Day of the week and route of administration were factors significantly associated with increased prescribing error. Conclusions: Medication prescribing errors are common in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital. Improving quick access to up to date reference materials, providing regular refresher trainings and possibly including a clinical pharmacist in the healthcare team are recommended. © 2014 Zeleke et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Shibabaw A.,Wollo University | Abebe T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries in which it is sought. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital-acquired infections. The main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates, the prevalence of MRSA, and the nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff members. Methods: A total of 118 health care workers (HCWs) were enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured on mannitol salt agar (MSA). The slide coagulase test was performed. Susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with 10 antibiotics. Results: Of the 118 HCWs, 34 had S. aureus and 15 had MRSA, with overall positivity rates of 28.8% and 12.7%, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates were sensitive to penicillin. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only two (13.3%) of the nasal isolates were vancomycin-resistant. Conclusions: A high rate of nasal carriage and multidrug-resistant S. aureus was found in this study, indicating the need for standard infection control to prevent transmission in our health care setting. © 2014 The Authors.


Background: Despite the slight progress made on Antenatal Care (ANC) utilization, skilled delivery care service utilization in Ethiopia is still far-below any acceptable standards. Only 10% of women receive assistance from skilled birth attendants either at home or at health institutions, and as a result the country is recording a high maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 676 per 100,000 live births (EDHS, 2011). Hence, this study aimed at identifying the rural-urban differentials in the predictors of skilled delivery care service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The study used the recent Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2011) data. Women who had at least one birth in the five years preceding the survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed using univariate (percentage), bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate (Bayesian logistic regression).Results: The results showed that of the total 6,641 women, only 15.6% received skilled delivery care services either at home or at health institution. Rural women were at greater disadvantage to receive the service. Only 4.5% women in rural areas received assistance from skilled birth attendants (SBAs) compared to 64.1 % of their urban counter parts. Through Bayesian logistic regression analysis, place of residence, ANC utilization, women’s education, age and birth order were identified as key predictors of service utilization.Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for coordinated effort from government and stakeholders to improve women’s education, as well as strengthen community participation. Furthermore, the study recommended the need to scale up the quality of ANC and family planning services backed by improved and equitable access, availability and quality of skilled delivery care services. © 2014 Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.


Shibabaw A.,Wollo University | Shibabaw A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Abebe T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control | Year: 2013

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of community and hospital acquired infections. One of the important sources of staphylococci for nosocomial infection is nasal carriage among hospital personnel. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious problem in hospital environments. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dessie Referral Hospital healthcare-workers in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 118 healthcare workers. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar. Slide coagulase test was performed. An oxacillin susceptibility test was carried out on Muller Hinton agar using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: Of the 118 healthcare workers, 34 (28.8%) carried S. aureus of which 15 were methicillin resistant. Therefore, 12.7% of all HCWs were identified as MRSA carriers. The rate of methicillin resistance among all S. aureus isolates was 44.1% (15/34). MRSA carriage was particularly high among nurses (21.2%). The highest rate of MRSA carriers (57.1%) were workers of surgical wards.Conclusions: The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among healthcare workers found in this study indicates the need for adjusted infection control measures to prevent MRSA transmission in our healthcare setting. © 2013 Shibabaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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