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Kombolcha, Ethiopia

The town of Kombolcha is found in the northern part of Ethiopia. It contains several large industries that drain their liquid waste to the nearby rivers. To assess the impact of the wastes on irrigation water quality water samples were just taken randomly to be used only as indicators. The samples of water were collected three times from three rivers that are locally called the Leyole Worka and Borkena. These rivers are used as sources of irrigation water for the nearby farmlands. Parameters of pH EC Ca+2 Mg+2 Na+ Cl- CO HCO BO and SAR were monitored in the irrigation water and the soils of the respective irrigated farmlands. Significant concentration differences (at P≤0.05) in these parameters were detected in the two rivers receiving industrial effluents (Leyole and Worka) and they are compared against the control river water (Borkena). The mean values of the parameters in each irrigation water source samples were also compared with FAO guidelines for irrigation water quality. The Leyole and Worka are found to be polluted as compared to the control river (Borkena). Significant quality difference was observed in pH value and Na+ concentrations between the Borkena River and effluent-contaminated irrigation water of the Leyole River. Moreover Na+ HCO and SAR were found to be beyond the safe limits to use in irrigation. Irrigation water from the Worka River was found to be significantly different from the control irrigation water in Na+ Mg+2 and SAR and the Na+ concentration and the values of pH and SAR have been identified to exceed the normal conditions for use in agriculture. The chemical parameters in the irrigation water were also found to have accumulated and changed the soil characteristics of the farmlands. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Hussien H.B.,Wollo University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

The general objective of the study was to calculate the production efficiency of the mixed crop-livestock farmers in two districts of north eastern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were used to analyze the performance of mixed crop and livestock production system and determinants of production efficiencies. For this study, a total of 252 farmers were selected using probability proportional to sample size sampling technique. The non-parametric method DEA was employed to measure production efficiency. The non-parametric methods of efficiency measurement indicated that most farmers in the study area were not efficient suggesting that efficiency improvement is one of the possible avenues for increasing agricultural production with available resource and technology. The mean TE, AE and EE of the household calculated from non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis Variable Returns to Scale (DEAVRS) were 55%, 70% and 40%, respectively. The production efficiency of mixed crop-livestock farming was determined by farm size, livestock ownership, labour availability, off/non-farm income participation, total household asset, total household consumption expenditure and improved technology adoption. This study found that improved agricultural technology adoption increased production efficiency of households. Such actions may, in turn, alleviate the current problem of food insecurity and lead in the long run to economic development. Source

Shibabaw A.,Wollo University | Abebe T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries in which it is sought. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital-acquired infections. The main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates, the prevalence of MRSA, and the nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff members. Methods: A total of 118 health care workers (HCWs) were enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured on mannitol salt agar (MSA). The slide coagulase test was performed. Susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with 10 antibiotics. Results: Of the 118 HCWs, 34 had S. aureus and 15 had MRSA, with overall positivity rates of 28.8% and 12.7%, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates were sensitive to penicillin. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only two (13.3%) of the nasal isolates were vancomycin-resistant. Conclusions: A high rate of nasal carriage and multidrug-resistant S. aureus was found in this study, indicating the need for standard infection control to prevent transmission in our health care setting. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Zeleke A.,Wollo University | Chanie T.,Jimma University | Woldie M.,Jimma University
International Archives of Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective. To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to March 17, 2012. Data on the prescribed drugs were collected from patient charts and prescription papers among all patients who were admitted during the study period. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, prevalence, means, and standard deviations. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were computed using logistic regression (with significance declared at p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval). Results: Out of the 384 Medication order s identified during the study, a total of 223 prescribing errors were identified. This corresponds to an overall medication prescribing error rate of 58.07%. Incomplete prescriptions and dosing errors were the two most common types of prescribing errors. Antibiotics (54.26%) were the most common classes of drugs subjected to prescribing error. Day of the week and route of administration were factors significantly associated with increased prescribing error. Conclusions: Medication prescribing errors are common in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital. Improving quick access to up to date reference materials, providing regular refresher trainings and possibly including a clinical pharmacist in the healthcare team are recommended. © 2014 Zeleke et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Delil F.,Wollo University | Delil F.,Madras Veterinary College | Asfaw Y.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Gebreegziabher B.,Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats in Awash Fentale district, Afar, Ethiopia. Small ruminants in the district had poor herd immunity at the first visit and succumb to the disease then after. The seroprevalence during the time of an outbreak was much higher compared with the initial levels: 7. 3% and 42. 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. The higher seroprevalence figure in goats was suggestive of their relative susceptibility to PPR compared with sheep. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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