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Oromia, Ethiopia

Wollega University , also known as Nekemte University, is a university in Nekemte, a town in the central Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Wikipedia.

Feyissa T.R.,Wollega University | Genemo G.A.,Health Science University

Background: Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods: Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results: Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations: Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area. © 2014 Feyissa, Genemo. Source

Mesfin Y.M.,Haramaya University | Hailemariam D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Biadglign S.,Freelance Public Health Research Consultant | Kibret K.T.,Wollega University

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is emerging as major challenge facing tuberculosis control programs worldwide particularly in Asia and Africa. Findings from different studies on associations of HIV co-infection and drug resistance among patients with TB have been contradictory (discordant). Some institution based studies found strongly increased risks for multi-drug resistant TB (MDR TB) among patients co-infected with TB and HIV, whereas other studies found no increased risk (it remains less clear in community based studies. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and HIV infection. Methods and findings: Systematic review of the published literature of observational studies was conducted. Original studies were identified using databases of Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar and HINARI. The descriptions of original studies were made using frequency and forest plot. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plot graphically and Egger weighted and Begg rank regression tests statistically. Heterogeneity across studies was checked using Cochrane Q test statistic and I2. Pool risk estimates of MDR-TB and sub-grouping analysis were computed to analyze associations with HIV. Random effects of the meta-analysis of all 24 observational studies showed that HIV is associated with a marginal increased risk of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (estimated Pooled OR 1.24; 95%, 1.04-1.43). Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher (Pooled OR 2.28; 95%, 1.52-3.04) for primary multi-drug resistance tuberculosis and moderate association between HIV/AIDS and MDR-TB among population based studies and no significant association in institution settings. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is association between MDR-TB and HIV. Capacity for diagnosis of MDR-TB and initiating and scale up of antiretroviral treatment, and collaborations between HIV and TB control programs need to be considered and strengthened. © 2014 Mesfin et al. Source

Yalew E.,Wollega University | Zegeye D.T.,Health Science University | Meseret S.,Health Science University
BMC Public Health

Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has sharply decreased morbidity and mortality rates among HIV infected patients. Due to this, more and more people with HIV live longer and healthier lives. Yet if they practice sex without condom, those with high viral load have the potential to infect their sero-negative sexual partner or at risk of acquiring drug resistant viral strains from their sexual partner who are already infected. Hence, we aimed to assess practice of condom use and associated factors among HIV positive clients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital in North Western Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital based comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 466 study participants from the ART and pre ART clinic of the Hospital. A structured interview administered questionnaire first prepared in English then translated into Amharic was used to collect data. Nurses who were working in the hospital but not in the HIV clinic were recruited and trained as data collectors. Results: A total of 454 (224 respondents from ART naive and 230 ART experienced groups) were included in the study. Females constitute 151 (67.4%) and 133 (57.8%) of pre ART and ART group respectively. The ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 72 years. The average age was 31.7 years for women and 36.6 years for the men. About half of the participants (47.4% of ART group and 50.4% of the pre ART group) were sexually active. Inconsistent condom use was reported by 61(56%) ART and 50 (44.2%) of the pre ART sexually active study participants. Conclusions: The study found that those who are on ART were at lower risk of using condom inconsistently as compared to the ART nave patients living with HIV. Therefore, these results are of high importance in order to design tailored interventions. © 2012 Yalew et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ambalam K.,Wollega University
Journal of Sustainable Development

Food is a basic human right. One of the humanity's significant achievements has been to produce adequate food for the largest growing population. However, the co-existence of chronic hunger and malnutrition with presence of adequate capacities to address it is one of the gravest paradoxes of our time. In one-third of African countries the average daily calorie intake remains below the recommended level of 2100 kcal. The need and importance for greater food sovereignty has emerged out of broader concerns over the negative impact of world's food system on food security and environmental sustainability. Adoption of the food sovereignty principles are essential to empower local communities to have greater control over their productive resources, use and sustain ecologically friendly means of production, and access local markets as well as nutritious and culturally accepted food. The majority of African farmers are smallholders. However, the existing trend of land grabbing in Africa seriously affects food sovereignty in an unprecedented level. Based on the secondary sources, this paper explores different dimensions of the complex relationship between food sovereignty and land grabbing in African countries. It also analyses the various aspects on how the ongoing process of land grabbing in Africa affects food sovereignty which in turn leads to food insecurity of millions. The introduction of intensive agricultural production, due to land grabbing often based on a transformation of complex farming systems for commercial purpose can seriously threaten biodiversity. There is a need to balance the local circumstance while favouring large scale agricultural projects. © 2014 by the authors. Source

Yeneabat T.,Wollega University | Belachew T.,Jimma University | Haile M.,Jimma University
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Background: Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding only breast milk (including expressed breast milk) during the first six months and no other liquids and solid foods except medications. The time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding, however, is different in different countries depending on different factors. Studies showed the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality is higher among none exclusive breast-feeding infants, common during starting other foods. However, there is no study that evaluated the time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding in the study area. The aim of this study was to show time to cessation of EBF and its predictors among mothers of index infants less than twelve months old.Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study from February 13 to March 3, 2012 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study included a total of 592 mothers of index infant using multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed.Results: Cessation of exclusive breast-feeding occurred in 392 (69.63%) cases. Among these, 224 (57.1%) happened before six months, while 145 (37.0%) and 23 (5.9%) occurred at six months and after six months of age of the index infant respectively. The median time for infants to stay on exclusive breast-feeding was 6.36 months in rural and 5.13 months in urban, and this difference was statistically significant on a Log rank (Cox-mantel) test. Maternal and paternal occupation, place of residence, postnatal counseling on exclusive breast-feeding, mode of delivery, and birth order of the index infant were significant predictors of cessation of exclusive breast-feeding.Conclusion: Providing postnatal care counseling on EBF, routine follow-up and support of those mothers having infants stressing for working mothers can bring about implementation of national strategy on infant and young child feeding. © 2014 Yeneabat et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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