Subrahmanyam M.,Andhra University |
Gebissa F.T.,Wollega University
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2017
Determining the depth of anomalous geological subsurface structure is an important parameter in any of geophysical methods. Though, numerous magnetic interpretation techniques are available in literature for locating depth to the causative source, no specific information is found on the performance of any of the techniques. Werner deconvolution and Spectral methods are widely used to determine the approximate depth to the causative sources, which are then used in modeling methods. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the performance of Werner and spectral methods. Synthetic magnetic anomalies are generated over sheet, dyke and fault models for different combinations of geometric dimensions of the bodies and magnetization angles. These anomalies were interpreted with the two methods: Werner deconvolution and Spectral analysis. The error percentages are calculated as the difference between the theoretical and interpreted values. In addition, the results are discussed for their performance. It is observed that Werner method yields more reasonable values for depth compared to spectral methods particularly when body widths are more and deep seated or faulting is deep. In case of dyke model, the Werner method determines width also reliably. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Vemula S.K.,Wollega University
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2015
Objective: The present research is focused on developing flurbiprofen colon-specific tablets based on timed release and pH-sensitivity. Methods and Material: This study is designed to study the effect of eudragit coating on the drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix to achieve the colon-specific release. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and coated with eudragit S100 using dip coating method. Then the tablets were evaluated for different physical parameters, compatibility studies, in vitro dissolution and in vivo x-ray imaging studies. Statistical Analysis: In the stability studies, paired t-test is employed to determine the significance of difference at 0.05 level. Results: Flurbiprofen colon-specific tablets have been characterized for weight variation, hardness, friability and drug content. Based on in vitro drug release, the formulation F6 showed the low amount of drug release (18.41 ± 0.68%) in the initial lag period followed 100.43 ± 3.33% in 24 h. Compatibility studies revealed that there was no interaction between drug and the polymers. Similarity index value was found as 95.01, which is more than 50 indicates similarity between the dissolution profile before and after storage. In support of the dissolution studies, x-ray imaging studies revealed that tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastro intestinal tract. Conclusion: From the above results, it is obvious that the developed flurbiprofen enteric coated matrix tablets are suitable for colonic delivery.
Vemula S.K.,Wollega University |
Vemula S.K.,Jangaon Institute of Pharmaceutical science
AAPS PharmSciTech | Year: 2015
A significant plan is executed in the present study to study the effect of double-compression coating on flurbiprofen core mini-tablets to achieve the pulsatile colonic delivery to deliver the drug at a specific time as per the patho-physiological need of the disease that results in improved therapeutic efficacy. In this study, pulsatile double-compression-coated tablets were prepared based on time-controlled hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M inner compression coat and pH-sensitive Eudragit S100 outer compression coat. Then, the tablets were evaluated for both physical evaluation and drug-release studies, and to prove these results, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers were conducted. From the in vitro drug-release studies, F6 tablets were considered as the best formulation, which retarded the drug release in the stomach and small intestine (3.42 ± 0.12% in 5 h) and progressively released to the colon (99.78 ± 0.74% in 24 h). The release process followed zero-order release kinetics, and from the stability studies, similarity factor between dissolution data before and after storage was found to be 88.86. From the pharmacokinetic evaluation, core mini-tablets producing peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 14,677.51 ± 12.16 ng/ml at 3 h Tmax and pulsatile colonic tablets showed Cmax = 12,374.67 ± 16.72 ng/ml at 12 h Tmax. The area under the curve for the mini and pulsatile tablets was 41,238.52 and 72,369.24 ng-h/ml, and the mean resident time was 3.43 and 10.61 h, respectively. In conclusion, development of double-compression-coated tablets is a promising way to achieve the pulsatile colonic release of flurbiprofen. © 2015, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.
Kodicherla S.P.K.,Wollega University
International Journal of Ambient Energy | Year: 2017
Wind utilisation for effective electricity generation has dated since last two decades by means of the modern wind turbines and has proved as a mature, reliable and efficient technology. This paper integrates the wind characteristics and performance of selected wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) from eight selected stations within Tigray region in Ethiopia. The wind speed data were collected over a period between 2002 and 2014. Based on the Paciﬁc Northwest Laboratory (PNL) classification, all the selected stations fall into Class 1. Therefore, these stations may be advised for small-scale power applications. Furthermore, the highest annual energy output achieved was 3902.31 MWh using VESTAS V110 – 2.0 at Mekele. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Mesfin Y.M.,Haramaya University |
Hailemariam D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Biadglign S.,Freelance Public Health Research Consultant |
Kibret K.T.,Wollega University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is emerging as major challenge facing tuberculosis control programs worldwide particularly in Asia and Africa. Findings from different studies on associations of HIV co-infection and drug resistance among patients with TB have been contradictory (discordant). Some institution based studies found strongly increased risks for multi-drug resistant TB (MDR TB) among patients co-infected with TB and HIV, whereas other studies found no increased risk (it remains less clear in community based studies. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and HIV infection. Methods and findings: Systematic review of the published literature of observational studies was conducted. Original studies were identified using databases of Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar and HINARI. The descriptions of original studies were made using frequency and forest plot. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plot graphically and Egger weighted and Begg rank regression tests statistically. Heterogeneity across studies was checked using Cochrane Q test statistic and I2. Pool risk estimates of MDR-TB and sub-grouping analysis were computed to analyze associations with HIV. Random effects of the meta-analysis of all 24 observational studies showed that HIV is associated with a marginal increased risk of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (estimated Pooled OR 1.24; 95%, 1.04-1.43). Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher (Pooled OR 2.28; 95%, 1.52-3.04) for primary multi-drug resistance tuberculosis and moderate association between HIV/AIDS and MDR-TB among population based studies and no significant association in institution settings. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is association between MDR-TB and HIV. Capacity for diagnosis of MDR-TB and initiating and scale up of antiretroviral treatment, and collaborations between HIV and TB control programs need to be considered and strengthened. © 2014 Mesfin et al.
Getahun A.,Wollega University |
Deribe K.,Fayya Development Association |
Deribew A.,Jimma University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010
Background. Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results. A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34), who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36), who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42) and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45) were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion. Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment. © 2010 Getahun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Garoma S.,Wollega University
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development | Year: 2012
Background: The youth is vulnerable to risky sexual and reproductive health behaviors such as unprotected sexual intercourse and not using family planning that could lead to unfavorable health outcomes. Youth communication can be one of the most effective strategies in reducing risky sexual and reproductive health behaviors. Objective: To assess levels of communication between the youth and their parents, peers and teachers about reproductive health issues and HIV/AIDS in Nekemte town. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Four hundred twenty youngsters aged 15-24 years were selected from three sub-cities of Nekemte using simple random sampling procedures. In addition, 12 focus group discussions targeting the youth, parents, governmental and non-governmental employees, religious and elderly people took place in order to complement the quantitative findings. Results: Overall, 61% of the youth scored the mean and above in four-point scale and considered to have good level of communication on reproductive health (RH) and HIV/AIDS. In the multivariate analysis, age, place of residence, education and income were significantly associated with youth communication. Conclusion: A good level of communication about reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issue was documented in this study. However, emerging program interventions on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS by various stakeholders need to take into consideration those who have poor level of communication.
Feyissa T.R.,Wollega University |
Genemo G.A.,Health Science University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods: Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results: Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations: Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area. © 2014 Feyissa, Genemo.
Negeri E.L.,Wollega University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014
Background: Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by young population with in the ages of 15-24, constituting one third of the total population. Only little has been explored about the role of parenting process and peers in protecting youths from risky sexual behaviors. Thus, this study tried to assess risky sexual behaviors, risk perception and the influences of family and peers for possible interventions among youths in western Ethiopia. Methods. The study applied a comparative cross-sectional design triangulated with qualitative study. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather data. SPSS software version 20 was used to perform descriptive statistics, univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Over one third of in-school and 41.4% out-of-school youths reported unprotected sex during the 12 months period prior to interview. More than one third of in-school youths (37.1%) reported to have two and more than two lifetime sexual partners compared to 32.6% of out-of-school youths. Out-of-school youths feel that they are at higher risk of getting HIV than in-school youths (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.35). Youths who had high family connectedness were less likely to commence sexual activity and have multiple sexual partners than their counterparts (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94) and (AOR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.43) respectively. Having pressure from peer to have sex was significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62, 2.49). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of out-of-school youths engaged in risky sexual behaviors than in-school youths. Parents and peers play a role in shaping the behavior of youths. Consequently, the dimension of good parental process and positive peer factors has to be strengthened. © 2014 Negeri; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ambalam K.,Wollega University
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2014
Food is a basic human right. One of the humanity's significant achievements has been to produce adequate food for the largest growing population. However, the co-existence of chronic hunger and malnutrition with presence of adequate capacities to address it is one of the gravest paradoxes of our time. In one-third of African countries the average daily calorie intake remains below the recommended level of 2100 kcal. The need and importance for greater food sovereignty has emerged out of broader concerns over the negative impact of world's food system on food security and environmental sustainability. Adoption of the food sovereignty principles are essential to empower local communities to have greater control over their productive resources, use and sustain ecologically friendly means of production, and access local markets as well as nutritious and culturally accepted food. The majority of African farmers are smallholders. However, the existing trend of land grabbing in Africa seriously affects food sovereignty in an unprecedented level. Based on the secondary sources, this paper explores different dimensions of the complex relationship between food sovereignty and land grabbing in African countries. It also analyses the various aspects on how the ongoing process of land grabbing in Africa affects food sovereignty which in turn leads to food insecurity of millions. The introduction of intensive agricultural production, due to land grabbing often based on a transformation of complex farming systems for commercial purpose can seriously threaten biodiversity. There is a need to balance the local circumstance while favouring large scale agricultural projects. © 2014 by the authors.