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Flanagan J.U.,University of Auckland | Yosaatmadja Y.,University of Auckland | Teague R.M.,University of Auckland | Chai M.Z.L.,University of Auckland | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) catalyses the NADPH dependent reduction of carbonyl groups in a number of important steroid and prostanoid molecules. The enzyme is also over-expressed in prostate and breast cancer and its expression is correlated with the aggressiveness of the disease. The steroid products of AKR1C3 catalysis are important in proliferative signalling of hormone-responsive cells, while the prostanoid products promote prostaglandin-dependent proliferative pathways. In these ways, AKR1C3 contributes to tumour development and maintenance, and suggest that inhibition of AKR1C3 activity is an attractive target for the development of new anti-cancer therapies. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one well-known class of compounds that inhibits AKR1C3, yet crystal structures have only been determined for this enzyme with flufenamic acid, indomethacin, and closely related analogues bound. While the flufenamic acid and indomethacin structures have been used to design novel inhibitors, they provide only limited coverage of the NSAIDs that inhibit AKR1C3 and that may be used for the development of new AKR1C3 targeted drugs. To understand how other NSAIDs bind to AKR1C3, we have determined ten crystal structures of AKR1C3 complexes that cover three different classes of NSAID, N-phenylanthranilic acids (meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid), arylpropionic acids (flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, naproxen), and indomethacin analogues (indomethacin, sulindac, zomepirac). The N-phenylanthranilic and arylpropionic acids bind to common sites including the enzyme catalytic centre and a constitutive active site pocket, with the arylpropionic acids probing the constitutive pocket more effectively. By contrast, indomethacin and the indomethacin analogues sulindac and zomepirac, display three distinctly different binding modes that explain their relative inhibition of the AKR1C family members. This new data from ten crystal structures greatly broadens the base of structures available for future structure-guided drug discovery efforts. © 2012 Flanagan et al.

Melander R.J.,North Carolina State University | Selwood D.L.,Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2015

Governments, academics and industry are beginning to listen to the medical communities call for new anti-bacterials. This special issue brings together diverse review articles on topics from economics and pricing to new discovery methods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Pemberton H.,CRUK London Research Institute | Pemberton H.,Institute of Cancer Research | Anderton E.,CRUK London Research Institute | Anderton E.,Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research | And 14 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Polycomb group proteins form multicomponent complexes that are important for establishing lineage-specific patterns of gene expression. Mammalian cells encode multiple permutations of the prototypic Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) with little evidence for functional specialization. An aim of this study is to determine whether the multiple orthologs that are co-expressed in human fibroblasts act on different target genes and whether their genomic location changes during cellular senescence.Results: Deep sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitated with antibodies against CBX6, CBX7, CBX8, RING1 and RING2 reveals that the orthologs co-localize at multiple sites. PCR-based validation at representative loci suggests that a further six PRC1 proteins have similar binding patterns. Importantly, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies against different orthologs implies that multiple variants of PRC1 associate with the same DNA. At many loci, the binding profiles have a distinctive architecture that is preserved in two different types of fibroblast. Conversely, there are several hundred loci at which PRC1 binding is cell type-specific and, contrary to expectations, the presence of PRC1 does not necessarily equate with transcriptional silencing. Interestingly, the PRC1 binding profiles are preserved in senescent cells despite changes in gene expression.Conclusions: The multiple permutations of PRC1 in human fibroblasts congregate at common rather than specific sites in the genome and with overlapping but distinctive binding profiles in different fibroblasts. The data imply that the effects of PRC1 complexes on gene expression are more subtle than simply repressing the loci at which they bind. © 2014 Pemberton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hughes S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Elustondo F.,Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research | Di Fonzo A.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Leroux F.G.,Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research | And 4 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

CDC7 is a serine/threonine kinase that is essential for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. CDC7 activity is controlled by its activator, DBF4. Here we present crystal structures of human CDC7-DBF4 in complex with a nucleotide or ATP-competing small molecules, revealing the active and inhibited forms of the kinase, respectively. DBF4 wraps around CDC7, burying approximately 6,000 Å 2 of hydrophobic molecular surface in a bipartite interface. The effector domain of DBF4, containing conserved motif C, is essential and sufficient to support CDC7 kinase activity by binding to the kinase N-terminal lobe and stabilizing its canonical αC helix. DBF4 motif M latches onto the C-terminal lobe of the kinase, acting as a tethering domain. Our results elucidate the structural basis for binding to and activation of CDC7 by DBF4 and provide a framework for the design of more potent and specific CDC7 inhibitors. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Caldwell J.J.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Caldwell J.J.,University of Sussex | Welsh E.J.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Matijssen C.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Structure-based design was applied to the optimization of a series of 2-(quinazolin-2-yl)phenols to generate potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitors of the DNA damage response signaling enzyme checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2). Structure-activity relationships for multiple substituent positions were optimized separately and in combination leading to the 2-(quinazolin-2-yl) phenol 46 (IC 50 3 nM) with good selectivity for CHK2 against CHK1 and a wider panel of kinases and with promising in vitro ADMET properties. Off-target activity at hERG ion channels shown by the core scaffold was successfully reduced by the addition of peripheral polar substitution. In addition to showing mechanistic inhibition of CHK2 in HT29 human colon cancer cells, a concentration dependent radioprotective effect in mouse thymocytes was demonstrated for the potent inhibitor 46 (CCT241533). © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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