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Parmenter C.D.,Nottingham Nanoscale and Microscale Research CentreUniversity of Nottingham United Kingdom | Fay M.W.,Nottingham Nanoscale and Microscale Research CentreUniversity of Nottingham United Kingdom | Hartfield C.,Oxford Instruments | Eltaher H.M.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2016

The preparation of thinned lamellae from bulk samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has been possible in the focussed ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) for over 20 years via the in situ lift-out method. Lift-out offers a fast and site specific preparation method for TEM analysis, typically in the field of materials science. More recently it has been applied to a low-water content biological sample (Rubino 2012). This work presents the successful lift-out of high-water content lamellae, under cryogenic conditions (cryo-FIB lift-out) and using a nanomanipulator retaining its full range of motion, which are advances on the work previously done by Rubino (2012). Strategies are explored for maintaining cryogenic conditions, grid attachment using cryo-condensation of water and protection of the lamella when transferring to the TEM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Almeida R.D.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Sottile V.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Loose M.,University of Nottingham | De Sousa P.A.,University of Edinburgh | And 2 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2012

5-Hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC) is a form of modified cytosine, which has recently attracted a considerable attention due to its potential role in transcriptional regulation. According to several reports 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine distribution is tissue-specific in mammals. Thus, 5-hmC is enriched in embryonic cell populations and in adult neuronal tissue. Here, we describe a novel method of semi-quantitative immunohistochemical detection of 5-hmC and utilize it to assess the levels of this modification in amphibian tissues. We show that, similar to mammalian embryos, 5-hmC is enriched in axolotl tadpoles compared with adult tissues. Our data demonstrate that 5-hmC distribution is tissue-specific in amphibians, and that strong 5-hmC enrichment in neuronal cells is conserved between amphibians and mammals. In addition, we identify 5-hmC-enriched cell populations that are distributed in amphibian skin and connective tissue in a mosaic manner. Our results illustrate that immunochemistry can be successfully used not only for spatial identification of cells enriched with 5-hmC, but also for the semi-quantitative assessment of the levels of this epigenetic modification in single cells of different tissues. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source


Pascut F.C.,University of Nottingham | Goh H.T.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Welch N.,University of Nottingham | Buttery L.D.,University of Nottingham | And 2 more authors.
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2011

Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) was used to detect and image molecular markers specific to cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This technique is noninvasive and thus can be used to discriminate individual live CMs within highly heterogeneous cell populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra was used to build a classification model for identification of individual CMs. Retrospective immunostaining imaging was used as the gold standard for phenotypic identification of each cell. We were able to discriminate CMs from other phenotypes with >97% specificity and >96% sensitivity, as calculated with the use of cross-validation algorithms (target 100% specificity). A comparison between Raman spectral images corresponding to selected Raman bands identified by the PCA model and immunostaining of the same cells allowed assignment of the Raman spectral markers. We conclude that glycogen is responsible for the discrimination of CMs, whereas myofibril proteins have a lesser contribution. This study demonstrates the potential of RMS for allowing the noninvasive phenotypic identification of hESC progeny. With further development, such label-free optical techniques may enable the separation of high-purity cell populations with mature phenotypes, and provide repeated measurements to monitor time-dependent molecular changes in live hESCs during differentiation in vitro. © 2011 by the Biophysical Society. Source


Rashidi H.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Strohbuecker S.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Jackson L.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | Kalra S.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | And 4 more authors.
Cells Tissues Organs | Year: 2012

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used as a cellular model of bone formation, and can mineralize in vitro in response to osteogenic medium (OM). It is unclear, however, whether this property is specific to cells of mesenchymal origin. We analysed the OM response in 3 non-osteogenic lines, HEK293, HeLa and NTera, compared to MSCs. Whereas HEK293 cells failed to respond to OM conditions, the 2 carcinoma-derived lines NTera and HeLa deposited a calcium phosphate mineral comparable to that present in MSC cultures. However, unlike MSCs, HeLa and NTera cultures did so in the absence of dexamethasone. This discrepancy was confirmed, as bone morphogenetic protein inhibition obliterated the OM response in MSCs but not in HeLa or NTera, indicating that these 2 models can deposit mineral through a mechanism independent of established dexamethasone or bone morphogenetic protein signalling. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Alioui A.,University of Nottingham | Alioui A.,Clermont University | Wheldon L.M.,University of Nottingham | Abakir A.,Wolfson Center for Stem Cells | And 3 more authors.
Nucleus (United States) | Year: 2012

5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) is an epigenetic modification associated with gene repression. Recent studies demonstrated that 5-mC can be enzymatically oxidised into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further into 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytsine (5-caC). 5-caC has been found in embryonic stem cells and in mouse pre-implantation embryos but no detectable levels of this modification have been reported for somatic tissues to date. Whereas it has been suggested that 5-caC can serve as an intermediate in the process of active demethylation, the function of this form of modified cytosine remains obscure. Here we show that 5-caC is immunochemically detectable in somatic cells of axolotl ovary. We demonstrate that both 5-hmC and 5-caC are localized to the euchromatin in the nuclei of axolotl follicular cells with similar patterns of spatial distribution. Our results suggest that 5-carboxylcytosine may play a distinct functional role in certain biological contexts. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

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