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Lalli G.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Diseases
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

The most prominent example of long-distance migration in the postnatal brain is the rostral migratory stream (RMS) formed by neuroblasts origi- nating in the subventricular zone (SVZ), one of the main neurogenic niches. Stem cell-derived neuroblasts leave the SVZ and migrate rostrally towards the olfactory bulb (OB), where they ultimately differentiate into inhibitory interneurons. This migration is essential for the proper integra- tion of new neurons into the synaptic network and for the regulation of synaptic plasticity and olfactory memory. SVZ-derived postnatal neuro- blasts undergo tangential migration independent of radial glia. They slide along each other in chains, which become progressively encased by an astrocytic tunnel throughout adulthood, while keeping in close contact with surrounding blood vessels. Once in the OB, neuroblasts switch to radial migration before differentiating. While the existence of an RMS is still controversial in the adult human brain, prominent migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts towards the OB is observed in human infants, where it may play an important role in plasticity in a crucial period for the forma-tion of synaptic networks. Moreover, SVZ neuroblasts are able to deviate from their migratory path to reach areas of injury and neurodegeneration. Identifying the extracellular factors and the intracellular mechanisms regulating neuroblast migration can therefore not only clarify a fundamental aspect of postnatal neurogenesis, but can also become relevant for therapeutic strategies exploiting the recruitment of endogenous stem cell- derived neural progenitors. This chapter presents an overview of the wide range of extracellular factors guiding neuroblast migration that have emerged over the last two decades. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014. Source

Yu R.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Tan C.-H.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Diseases | Wu R.-M.,National Taiwan University Hospital
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2015

Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore nocturnal disturbances in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to assess their impact on quality of life (QoL). Methods: A total of 211 patients with PD were recruited for this study, and each participant was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination, PD sleep scale – second version (PDSS-2), pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), PD QoL questionnaire (PDQ), Epworth sleepiness scale, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging, and unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of the predictive variables on QoL. Results: There were 56.4% males (mean age: 64.08 years; disease duration: 6.02 years; H&Y stage: 2.25; and UPDRS: 33.01) in this study. Our patients’ actual sleep time was 5.96±1.16 hours and the average sleep efficiency was 82.93%±12.79%. Up to 64.4% of patients were classified as “poor” sleepers and 23.8% suffered from daytime sleepiness. The final stepwise regression model revealed that UPDRS parts I and II, the sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction components of the PSQI, the PD symptoms at night subscale of the PDSS-2, and the levodopa equivalent dose were significant predictors of the PDQ score (R2=53, F7,165=28.746; P<0.001). Conclusion: Most of the PD patients have sleep problems, and nearly one-quarter of them have abnormal daytime somnolence. The nocturnal disturbances were found to result in worse QoL in PD patients. Ethnicity-specific effects of susceptibility to sleep disturbances were discussed, and these results also highlighted the direction for further studies to explore when examining effective management programs toward these disturbances. © 2015 Yu et al. Source

Ballard C.,Kings College London | Ballard C.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Diseases | Gauthier S.,Douglas Mental Health Research Institute | Corbett A.,Alzheimers Society | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

An estimated 24 million people worldwide have dementia, the majority of whom are thought to have Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Alzheimer's disease represents a major public health concern and has been identified as a research priority. Although there are licensed treatments that can alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, there is a pressing need to improve our understanding of pathogenesis to enable development of disease-modifying treatments. Methods for improving diagnosis are also moving forward, but a better consensus is needed for development of a panel of biological and neuroimaging biomarkers that support clinical diagnosis. There is now strong evidence of potential risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive decline, but further work is needed to understand these better and to establish whether interventions can substantially lower these risks. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of recent evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and discuss potential ways to reduce the risk of developing the disease. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fischer M.J.M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Fischer M.J.M.,University of Cambridge | Balasuriya D.,University of Cambridge | Jeggle P.,University of Cambridge | And 5 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in sensing environmental hazards and in enhanced pain sensation following inflammation. A considerable proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells also express transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1). There is evidence for a TRPV1-TRPA1 interaction that is predominantly calcium-dependent, and it has been suggested that the two proteins might form a heteromeric channel. Here, we constructed subunit concatemers to search for direct evidence for such an interaction. We found that a TRPV1::TRPV1 concatemer and TRPV1 formed channels with similar properties. A TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemer was responsive to TRPV1 agonists capsaicin, acidic pH and ethanol, but not to TRPA1 agonists. Isolated TRPV1 and TRPV1::TRPA1 imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) both had molecular volumes consistent with the formation of tetrameric channels. Antibodies decorated epitope tags on TRPV1 with a four-fold symmetry, as expected for a homotetramer. In contrast, pairs of antibodies decorated tags on TRPV1::TRPA1 predominantly at 180°, indicating the formation of a channel consisting of two TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemers arranged face to face. TRPV1::TRPA1 was sensitized by PKC activation and could be inhibited by a TRPV1 antagonist. TRPV1::TRPA1 was activated by heat and displayed a threshold and temperature coefficient similar to TRPV1. However, the channel formed by TRPV1::TRPA1 has only two binding sites for capsaicin and shows less total current and a smaller capsaicin-induced shift in voltage-dependent gating than TRPV1::TRPV1 or TRPV1. We conclude that the presence of TRPA1 exerts a functional inhibition on TRPV1. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Finlay C.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Diseases | Duty S.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Diseases
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2014

Glutamate plays a complex role in many aspects of Parkinson’s disease including the loss of dopaminergic neurons, the classical motor symptoms as well as associated non-motor symptoms and the treatment-related side effect, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. This widespread involvement opens up possibilities for glutamate-based therapies to provide a more rounded approach to treatment than is afforded by current dopamine replacement therapies. Beneficial effects of blocking postsynaptic glutamate transmission have already been noted in a range of preclinical studies using antagonists of NMDA receptors or negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), while positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4 in particular, although at an earlier stage of investigation, also look promising. This review addresses each of the key features of Parkinson’s disease in turn, summarising the contribution glutamate makes to that feature and presenting an up-to-date account of the potential for drugs acting at ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors to provide relief. Whilst only a handful of these have progressed to clinical trials to date, notably NMDA and NR2B antagonists against motor symptoms and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators also against L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, the mainly positive outcomes of these trials, coupled with supportive preclinical data for other strategies in animal models of Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, raise cautious optimism that a glutamate-based therapeutic approach will have significant impact on the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. © Springer-Verlag Wien 2014. Source

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