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Brussels, Belgium

Waeckerle-Men Y.,University of Zurich | Bruffaerts N.,WIV ISP Site Ukkel | Liang Y.,University of Zurich | Liang Y.,Capital Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG provides limited protection against pulmonary tuberculosis and a risk of dissemination in immune-compromised vaccinees. For the development of new TB vaccines that stimulate strong T-cell responses a variety of strategies is being followed, especially recombinant BCG and attenuated M. tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to test potential benefits of vaccination through direct lymph-node targeting of wildtype BCG; the recommended route of vaccination with BCG is intradermal. C57BL/6 mice were immunised with BCG by intradermal, subcutaneous or intralymphatic injections. Cellular immune responses and protection against M. tuberculosis were determined. Intralymphatic vaccination was 100-1000 times more effective in stimulating BCG-specific immune responses than intradermal or subcutaneous immunisation. Intralymphatic administration stimulated high frequencies of mycobacterium-specific lymphocytes with strong proliferating capacity and production of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and, especially, IFN-γ secretion by. CD4 and CD8 T cells. Most importantly, intralymphatic vaccination with 2×103CFU BCG induced sustained protection against M. tuberculosis in intratracheally challenged C57BL/6 mice, whereas subcutaneous vaccination with 2×105CFU BCG conferred only a transient protection. Hence, direct administration of M. bovis BCG to lymph nodes demonstrates that efficient targeting to lymph nodes may help to overcome the efficacy problems of vaccination with BCG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Freches D.,WIV ISP Site Ukkel | Romano M.,WIV ISP Site Ukkel | Korf H.,WIV ISP Site Ukkel | Renauld J.-C.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 (which share a p40 subunit) are pivotal cytokines in the generation of protective Th1/Th17-type immune responses upon infection with the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The role of IL-12 and IL-23 in protection conferred by the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is, however, less well documented. By using an autovaccine approach, i.e., IL-12p70 cross-linked with ovalbumin and PADRE peptide formulated with the GSK proprietary adjuvant system AS02V, we could specifically neutralize IL-12 while leaving the IL-23 axis intact. Neutralization of IL-12 before M. tuberculosis challenge rendered C57BL/6 mice highly susceptible, resulting in 30-fold-higher CFU in spleen and lungs and accelerated mortality. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 in BCG-vaccinated mice prior to M. tuberculosis challenge only marginally affected vaccine-mediated protection. Analysis of cytokine production in spleen and lungs 3 weeks post-TB challenge by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional and flow cytometric assays showed significantly reduced mycobacterium-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses in M. tuberculosis-infected and BCG-vaccinated mice that had been treated with the autovaccine. Purified protein derivative-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-17A levels, however, were highest in lungs from BCG-vaccinated/IL-12-neutralized animals, and even unstimulated lung cells from these mice produced significant levels of the three cytokines. Mycobacterium-specific IL-4 and IL-5 production levels were overall very low, but IL-12 neutralization resulted in increased concanavalin A-triggered polyclonal secretion of these Th2-type cytokines. These results suggest that TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A may be more important pulmonary effector molecules of BCG-mediated protection than IFN-γ in a context of IL-12 deficiency. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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