Liedigk R.,Leibniz Institute for Primate Research |
Kolleck J.,Leibniz Institute for Primate Research |
Boker K.O.,Leibniz Institute for Primate Research |
Meijaard E.,Borneo Futures Project |
And 11 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015
Background: Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are an important model species in biomedical research and reliable knowledge about their evolutionary history is essential for biomedical inferences. Ten subspecies have been recognized, of which most are restricted to small islands of Southeast Asia. In contrast, the common long-tailed macaque (M. f. fascicularis) is distributed over large parts of the Southeast Asian mainland and the Sundaland region. To shed more light on the phylogeny of M. f. fascicularis, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of 40 individuals from all over the taxon's range, either by classical PCR-amplification and Sanger sequencing or by DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing. Results: Both laboratory approaches yielded complete mtDNA genomes from M. f. fascicularis with high accuracy and/or coverage. According to our phylogenetic reconstructions, M. f. fascicularis initially diverged into two clades 1.70 million years ago (Ma), with one including haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and North Sumatra (Clade A) and the other, haplotypes from the islands of Bangka, Java, Borneo, Timor, and the Philippines (Clade B). The three geographical populations of Clade A appear as paraphyletic groups, while local populations of Clade B form monophyletic clades with the exception of a Philippine individual which is nested within the Borneo clade. Further, in Clade B the branching pattern among main clades/lineages remains largely unresolved, most likely due to their relatively rapid diversification 0.93-0.84 Ma. Conclusions: Both laboratory methods have proven to be powerful to generate complete mtDNA genome data with similarly high accuracy, with the DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing approach as the most promising and only practical option to obtain such data from highly degraded DNA, in time and with relatively low costs. The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis by providing a more robust phylogeny and more reliable divergence age estimations than earlier studies. © Liedigk et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source
Ampeng A.,Wisma Sumber Alam Jalan Stadium |
Ampeng A.,National University of Malaysia |
Shukor M.N.,National University of Malaysia |
Sahibin A.R.,National University of Malaysia |
And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2016
A study on the pattern of mineral lick use by the Northwest Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in the Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary was carried out from February 2009 to December 2010. A camera trapping method was employed to investigate orangutan mineral lick visitation. The camera traps recorded a total of 263 orangutan visitations or 1.3 % from an overall 22,521 photographs taken. More visits were recorded between August 2009 and March 2010 which coincides with the dipterocarp flowering and fruiting season. Pairs and females with infants were recorded as the most regular visitors compared to pairs and females without infants and solitary males. The visitation time and duration varied among mineral licks and orangutan classes while the interval day visit showed that pairs and females with newborn infants visit the mineral licks continuously from the first day of the study to the tenth day. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source