Wisconsin, Wisconsin, United States
Wisconsin, Wisconsin, United States

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Turner P.A.,University of Minnesota | Griffis T.J.,University of Minnesota | Baker J.M.,University of Minnesota | Baker J.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2016

The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3 -) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2O N m-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3 - concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3 - concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Millen H.T.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Gonnering J.C.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Berg R.K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Spencer S.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2012

The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus. © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments.


Lepak R.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Yin R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Yin R.,Chinese Academy of science | Krabbenhoft D.P.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology Letters | Year: 2015

Sources of mercury (Hg) in Great Lakes sediments were assessed with stable Hg isotope ratios using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An isotopic mixing model based on mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) (δ202Hg and Δ199Hg) identified three primary Hg sources for sediments: atmospheric, industrial, and watershed-derived. Results indicate atmospheric sources dominate in Lakes Huron, Superior, and Michigan sediments while watershed-derived and industrial sources dominate in Lakes Erie and Ontario sediments. Anomalous Δ200Hg signatures, also apparent in sediments, provided independent validation of the model. Comparison of Δ200Hg signatures in predatory fish from three lakes reveals that bioaccumulated Hg is more isotopically similar to atmospherically derived Hg than a lake's sediment. Previous research suggests Δ200Hg is conserved during biogeochemical processing and odd mass-independent fractionation (MIF) is conserved during metabolic processing, so it is suspected even is similarly conserved. Given these assumptions, our data suggest that in some cases, atmospherically derived Hg may be a more important source of MeHg to higher trophic levels than legacy sediments in the Great Lakes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lepak R.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Krabbenhoft D.P.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Ogorek J.M.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Tate M.T.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g-1 MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g-1 MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g-1 MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan. (Figure Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | University of Wisconsin - Madison, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee and Wisconsin Water Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science & technology | Year: 2015

Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g(-1) MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan.


LaBeau M.,Calumet Electronics Corporation | Mayer A.,Michigan Technological University | Griffis V.,Michigan Technological University | Watkins D.,Michigan Technological University | And 2 more authors.
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2015

In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses throughout the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. We develop annual seasonal load-discharge regression models for each watershed and apply these models with simulated discharges generated for future climate scenarios to simulate future P loading patterns for two periods: 2046–2065 and 2081–2100. We utilize output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 downscaled climate change projections that are input into the Large Basin Runoff Model to generate future discharge scenarios, which are in turn used as inputs to the seasonal P load regression models. In almost all cases, the seasonal load-discharge models match observed loads better than the annual models. Results using the seasonal models show that the concurrence of nonlinearity in the load-discharge model and changes in high discharges in the spring months leads to the most significant changes in P loading for selected tributaries under future climate projections. These results emphasize the importance of using seasonal models to understand the effects of future climate change on nutrient loads. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Brooks W.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Corsi S.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Fienen M.,Wisconsin Water Science Center | Carvin R.,Wisconsin Water Science Center
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2016

Epidemiological studies indicate that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water are associated with illnesses among people having contact with the water. In order to mitigate public health impacts, many beaches are posted with an advisory when the concentration of FIB exceeds a beach action value. The most commonly used method of measuring FIB concentration takes 18-24 h before returning a result. In order to avoid the 24 h lag, it has become common to "nowcast" the FIB concentration using statistical regressions on environmental surrogate variables. Most commonly, nowcast models are estimated using ordinary least squares regression, but other regression methods from the statistical and machine learning literature are sometimes used. This study compares 14 regression methods across 7 Wisconsin beaches to identify which consistently produces the most accurate predictions. A random forest model is identified as the most accurate, followed by multiple regression fit using the adaptive LASSO. © 2015.


Millen H.T.,Wisconsin Water Science Center
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2012

The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.


PubMed | Wisconsin Water Science Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2012

The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

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