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Madison, WI, United States

Chang C.,Harvard University | Demokritou P.,Harvard University | Shafer M.,Wisconsin State of Hygiene Laboratory | Christiani D.,Harvard University
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM2.5-10), and fine (PM0.1-2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be greatly influenced by these factors. Furthermore, the results also confirmed the hypothesis that smaller particles generate more ROS activity and should be evaluated carefully for risk assessment. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Martin J.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Bello D.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Bello D.,Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology | Bunker K.,R. J. Lee Group Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

Photocopiers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1). To-date little is known of physicochemical composition of PM0.1 in real workplace settings. Here we perform a comprehensive physicochemical and morphological characterization of PM0.1 and raw materials (toners and paper) at eight commercial photocopy centers that use color and monochrome photocopiers over the course of a full week. We document high PM0.1 exposures with complex composition and several ENM in toners and PM0.1. Daily geometric mean PM0.1 concentrations ranged from 3700 to 34000 particles/cubic-centimeter (particles/cm3) (GSD 1.4-3.3), up to 12 times greater than background, with transient peaks >1.4 million particles/cm3. PM0.1 contained 6-63% organic carbon, <1% elemental carbon, and 2-8% metals, including iron, zinc, titania, chromium, nickel and manganese, typically in the <0.01-1% range, and in agreement with toner composition. These findings document widespread ENM in toner formulations and high nanoparticle exposures are an industry-wide phenomenon. It further calls attention to the need to substantially redesign the interface of this technology with workers and consumers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bello D.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Martin J.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Santeufemio C.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Sun Q.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2013

Several reports link printing and photocopying with genotoxicity, immunologic and respiratory diseases. Photocopiers and printers emit nanoparticles, which may be involved in these diseases. The physicochemical and morphological composition of these emitted nanoparticles, which is poorly understood and is critical for toxicological evaluations, was assessed in this study using both real-time instrumentation and analytical methods. Tests included elemental composition (40 metals), semi-volatile organics (100 compounds) and single particle analysis, using multiple high-sensitivity/ resolution techniques. Identical analyses were performed on the toners and dust collected from copier's exhaust filter. Engineered nanoparticles, including titanium dioxide, iron oxide and fumed silica, and several metals were found in toners and airborne nanoscale fraction. Chemical composition of airborne nanoscale fraction was complex and reflected toner chemistry. These findings are important in understanding the origin and toxicology of such nanoparticles. Further investigation of their chemistry, larger scale exposure studies and thorough toxicological characterisation of emitted nanoparticles is needed. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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