Milwaukee, WI, United States
Milwaukee, WI, United States

Wisconsin Lutheran College is a liberal arts college affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. It has an enrollment of about 1,000 students. Its nine-building campus sits on the border of Milwaukee and Wauwatosa, with some buildings in each city. Degree programs and the ESL Institute at Wisconsin Lutheran College are accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. In 2009, WLC was ranked 128th of 600 by Forbes on its list of America's Best Colleges. For the 13th consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report rates WLC as one of America's Best Colleges for 2015. WLC ranked 12th in the U.S. on Washington Monthly's 2013 Best Bang for the Buck Rankings for liberal arts colleges. In 2013, WLC ranked 12th in the nation on CBS MoneyWatch's list of U.S. colleges with the best professors. Wikipedia.


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Ebeling A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Oerter E.,University of California at Berkeley | Oerter E.,University of Utah | Valley J.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Amundson R.,University of California at Berkeley
Geoderma | Year: 2016

A relict soil on a late Tertiary/early Quaternary gravelly alluvial fan in the southern Atacama Desert was studied to determine if evidence of Quaternary climate change was evident in the profile. Stratigraphic relations of soil morphological features indicated that the initial phase of soil development was extensive chemical weathering with the loss of Si, Na, etc. and the formation of secondary clay. This was then followed by a prolonged period of carbonate accumulation that has discontinuously impregnated the earlier formed argillic horizons. The carbonate accumulation occurred both as fine-grained accumulations that engulfed and expanded the gravelly soil matrix, and as carbonate that formed dense and continuous coatings on gravel bottoms. Overlying the carbonate is a Holocene calcareous sand unit. Stable C and O isotope profiles of the disseminated carbonate show that this material appears to have formed under conditions of low to modest plant cover and significant soil water evaporation, very similar to soils presently found at higher latitudes and altitudes in modern Argentina. Seven transects of the carbonate laminations on the gravels at 10-μm scale reveal that all show a nearly 4‰ increase in δ13C values with time over distances of approximately 150mm, and variable δ18O values. The shift in C isotope values, which is unlikely to be due to significant changes in C3 vs. C4 vegetation, reflects a profound and prolonged aridification with a corresponding lowering of plant density and soil respiration. The precise beginning of the aridification is unknown due to a lack of carbonate dating methods amenable to the time frame involved. When all changes are considered, this remarkable soil indicates that local rainfall declined from somewhere between 500 to 1000mm y-1 in the late Tertiary/early Quaternary, to the present climate of about 25mm y-1. Future work will focus on developing more precise geochronological controls, but this initial study reveals the enormous potential that carbonate-bearing relict soils have for understanding climate change. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Glaeske K.W.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Donaldson W.A.,Marquette University
Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cyclooctatetraene [COT], a simple non-aromatic cyclic polyene, is capable of undergoing a variety of oxidation and cycloaddition reactions to afford polycyclic structures. In addition, complexation of COT or the cycloaddition products with transition metals facilitates bond formation. Recent developments in the reactivity of COT and application to the synthesis of naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring compounds is reviewed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Holtz C.A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Fox R.A.,Marquette University
Infant Mental Health Journal | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to construct a screening tool, the Early Childhood Behavior Screen (ECBS), to identify behavior problems and prosocial behaviors in very young children (1-5 years old) from low-income backgrounds. Field testing of the initial screening tool was conducted with a representative, diverse sample of 439 parents from a low-income, urban community. The final 20-item scale was written at a 3.9 grade reading level. Psychometric properties of the ECBS revealed that the items loaded on two factors, the Challenging Behavior factor and the Prosocial Behavior factor. Each factor demonstrated high levels of internal consistency (87 and .92, respectively). The Challenging Behavior factor demonstrated adequate levels of concurrent validity (r = .75), sensitivity (r = .82), and specificity (r = .80) based on its relationship with the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (S.M. Eyberg & D. Pincus, 1999). The Prosocial Behavior factor is a clinically useful aspect of the ECBS, as it allows researchers and practitioners to identify the child's positive behaviors as part of a strength-based approach to treatment. The results suggested that the ECBS has potential as a brief screening tool that is useful in pediatric, psychological, and educational settings that serve low-income populations to aid in the identification of young children with challenging behaviors that may require intervention services. © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.


Peterson B.A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Gwinn M.L.,McKing Consulting Corporation | Valdez R.A.,National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases and as such is often incorporated into clinical practice guidelines. To assess the consistency of the use of family history in selected guidelines for colorectal cancer (CRC) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to examine how these definitions influence their screening recommendations. Using a web-based search, guidelines issued between 2001 and 2011 from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the U.S., and the WHO were reviewed. In total, 21 guidelines were found that included family history information (14 for CRC and seven for T2DM). For each guideline, the definition of family history and the way this definition influenced screening recommendations was recorded. Analyses were completed on May 2011. Family history was defined most often as the presence of affected first-degree relatives; the number of such relatives and their ages at diagnosis were considered sometimes in making specific recommendations. The definition of family history and its impact on recommendations varied substantially, even for the same disease. Despite the importance of family history as a risk factor for CRC and T2DM, its use in screening recommendations is inconsistent among guidelines from major organizations; however, differences do not appear large enough to prevent achieving consensus among the guidelines for each disease. More standardized recommendations for use of family history in CRC and T2DM screening guidelines could enhance their utility for prevention.


Chettoor A.M.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Phillips A.R.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Phillips A.R.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Coker C.T.,Carnegie Institution for Science | And 2 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2016

Flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. Plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. Flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. Because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gametophyte that contributes to the regulation of growth and development of the seed. A primary function of the endosperm is to provide growth support to its sister embryo. Several mutations in Zea mays subsp. mays have been identified that affect the contribution of the mother gametophyte to the seed. The majority affect both the endosperm and the embryo, although some embryo-specific effects have been observed. Many alter the pattern of expression of a marker for the basal endosperm transfer layer, a tissue that transports nutrients from the mother plant to the developing seed. Many of them cause abnormal development of the female gametophyte prior to fertilization, revealing potential cellular mechanisms of maternal control of seed development. These effects include reduced central cell size, abnormal architecture of the central cell, abnormal numbers and morphology of the antipodal cells, and abnormal egg cell morphology. These mutants provide insight into the logic of seed development, including necessary features of the gametes and supporting cells prior to fertilization, and set up future studies on the mechanisms regulating maternal contributions to the seed. © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.


Davis J.G.,Purdue University | Davis J.G.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Zukowski S.R.,Purdue University | Rankin B.M.,Purdue University | Ben-Amotz D.,Purdue University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2015

Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR), as well as quantum and classical calculations, are used to probe water structural changes in the hydration shells of carboxylic acids and tetraalkyl ammonium ions with various aliphatic chain lengths. The results reveal that water molecules in the hydration shell around the hydrophobic chains undergo a temperature and chain length dependent structural transformation resembling that previously observed in aqueous solutions of n-alcohols. Deprotonation of the carboxylic acid headgroup (at pH ∼ 7) is found to suppress the onset of the hydration-shell structural transformation around the nearest aliphatic methylene group. Tetraalkyl ammonium cations are found to more strongly suppress the water structural transformation, perhaps reflecting the greater intramolecular charge delocalization and suppression of dangling OH defects in water's tetrahedral H-bond network. The observed coupling between ionic and hydrophobic groups, as well as the associated charge asymmetry, may influence the hydrophobicity of proteins and other materials. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Carey R.A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College
Journal of Christian nursing : a quarterly publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship | Year: 2011

Granville Neighborhood Health Center (GNHC) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conceived out of community need and the vision of Risen Savior Lutheran Church, Wisconsin Lutheran College (WLC), and community leaders. GNHC offers free healthcare services monthly to the uninsured and a service-learning and clinical site for nursing and other students at the college.


Holtz C.A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Fox R.A.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Meurer J.R.,Wisconsin Lutheran College
The Journal of psychology | Year: 2015

Few studies have examined the incidence of behavior problems in toddlers and preschool children from families living in poverty. The available research suggests behavior problems occur at higher rates in children living in poverty and may have long-term negative outcomes if not identified and properly treated. This study included an ethnically representative sample of 357 children, five years of age and younger, from a diverse, low-income, urban area. All families' incomes met the federal threshold for living in poverty. Behavior problems were assessed by parent report through a questionnaire specifically designed for low-income families. Boys and younger children were reported as demonstrating a higher rate of externalizing behaviors than girls and older children. The overall rate of children scoring at least one standard deviation above the sample's mean for challenging behaviors was 17.4% and was not related to the child's gender, age or ethnicity. This study also sampled children's positive behaviors, which is unique in studies of behavior problems. Gender and age were not related to the frequency of reported positive behaviors. Ethnicity did influence scores on the positive scale. African American children appeared to present their parents more difficulty on items reflecting cooperative behaviors than Caucasian or Latino children. The implications of the study are discussed based on the recognized need for universal screening of behavior problems in young children and the small number professional training programs targeting the identification and treatment of early childhood behavior problems, despite the availability of evidence-based treatment programs tailored to young children in low-income families.


Kuehn K.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Moeller M.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Schulz M.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Sanfelippo D.,Wisconsin Lutheran College
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

We have experimentally studied the impact of an initially planar axisymmetric vortex ring, incident at an oblique angle, upon a gravity-induced interface separating two fluids of differing densities. After impact, the vortex ring was found to exhibit a variety of subsequent trajectories, which we organize according to both the incidence angle, θi, and the interface strength, defined as the ratio of the Atwood and Froude numbers, A/F. For grazing incidence angles (θi 70°) vortices either penetrate or reflect from the interface, depending on whether the interface is weak or strong. In some cases, reflected vortices execute damped oscillations before finally disintegrating. For smaller incidence angles (θi 70°) vortices penetrate the interface. When there is a strong interface, these vortices are observed to curve back up toward the interface. When there is a weak interface, these vortices are observed to refract downward, away from the interface. The critical interface strength below which vortex ring refraction is observed is given by log10 (A/F) =-2.38±0.05. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


PubMed | Wisconsin Lutheran College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of psychology | Year: 2014

Few studies have examined the incidence of behavior problems in toddlers and preschool children from families living in poverty. The available research suggests behavior problems occur at higher rates in children living in poverty and may have long-term negative outcomes if not identified and properly treated. This study included an ethnically representative sample of 357 children, five years of age and younger, from a diverse, low-income, urban area. All families incomes met the federal threshold for living in poverty. Behavior problems were assessed by parent report through a questionnaire specifically designed for low-income families. Boys and younger children were reported as demonstrating a higher rate of externalizing behaviors than girls and older children. The overall rate of children scoring at least one standard deviation above the samples mean for challenging behaviors was 17.4% and was not related to the childs gender, age or ethnicity. This study also sampled childrens positive behaviors, which is unique in studies of behavior problems. Gender and age were not related to the frequency of reported positive behaviors. Ethnicity did influence scores on the positive scale. African American children appeared to present their parents more difficulty on items reflecting cooperative behaviors than Caucasian or Latino children. The implications of the study are discussed based on the recognized need for universal screening of behavior problems in young children and the small number professional training programs targeting the identification and treatment of early childhood behavior problems, despite the availability of evidence-based treatment programs tailored to young children in low-income families.

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