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Carlsson C.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Carlsson C.M.,William S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital Geriatric Research | Carlsson C.M.,Wisconsin Alzheimers Disease Research Center
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing rapidly, heightening the importance of finding effective preventive therapies for this devastating disease. Midlife vascular risk factors, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), have been associated with increased risk of AD decades later and may serve as targets for AD prevention. Studies to date suggest that T2DM and hyperinsulinemia increase risk for AD, possibly through their effects on amyloid-β metabolism and cerebrovascular dysfunction - two early findings in preclinical AD pathology. This paper reviews the evidence supporting a relationship between T2DM, hyperinsulinemia, and diabetic dyslipidemia on the development of AD, discusses DM treatment trials and their preliminary results on cognitive function, and proposes some strategies for optimizing future AD prevention trial design. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. Source


Wichmann M.A.,North Charter Street | Wichmann M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Wichmann M.A.,Wisconsin Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Cruickshanks K.J.,North Charter Street | And 5 more authors.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders | Year: 2016

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent dementia, but previous studies have yielded conflicting results. This study estimated the association of prior NSAID use with incident cognitive impairment in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS, n=2422 without cognitive impairment in 1998-2000). Prospectively collected medication data from 1988-1990, 1993-1995, and 1998-2000 were used to categorize NSAID use history at the cognitive baseline (1998-2000). Aspirin use and nonaspirin NSAID use were separately examined. Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations between NSAID use history at baseline and incident cognitive impairment in 2003-2005 or 2009-2010. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations with a second outcome, mild cognitive impairment/dementia, available in 2009-2010. Participants using aspirin at baseline but not 5 years prior were more likely to develop cognitive impairment (adjusted hazard ratio=1.77; 95% confidence interval=1.11, 2.82; model 2), with nonsignificant associations for longer term use. Nonaspirin NSAID use was not associated with incident cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment/dementia odds. These results provided no evidence to support a potential protective effect of NSAIDs against dementia. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Wichmann M.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Cruickshanks K.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Carlsson C.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Carlsson C.M.,Wisconsin Alzheimers Disease Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2014

Objectives Evidence suggests inflammation is associated with cognitive impairment, but previous epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study participants. Participants Individuals without cognitive impairment in 1998-2000 (N = 2,422; 1,947 with necessary data). Measurements Cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24 or diagnosis of dementia) was ascertained in 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2009-2010. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 1988-1990, 1998-2000, and 2009-2010; tumor necrosis factor-alpha was measured from 1998-2000. Results Participants with high CRP in 1988-1990 and 1998-2000 had lower risk of cognitive impairment than those with low CRP at both time points (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-0.80). Risk did not differ according to 10-year IL-6 profile or baseline inflammation category in the whole cohort. In sensitivity analyses restricted to statin nonusers, those with high IL-6 at both times had greater risk of cognitive impairment than those with low IL-6 at both times (HR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.09-10.30). In secondary analyses, each doubling of IL-6 change over 20 years was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment in 2009-2010 in the whole cohort (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04-1.89), whereas a doubling of CRP change over 20 years was associated with cognitive impairment only in statin nonusers (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.65). Conclusion With data collected over 20 years, this study demonstrated greater likelihood of cognitive impairment in individuals with repeated high or increasing IL-6. The inconsistent CRP findings may reflect effects of statin medications, survival effects, or adverse effects associated with chronically low CRP. Further studies of long-term inflammation and cognitive impairment are needed. © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society. Source


Fischer B.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center | Gleason C.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center | Gleason C.,Wisconsin Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Gleason C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

Objective Results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) suggested that hormone therapy (HT) may be detrimental to cognitive health. This article reviews clinical studies that address issues relevant to those results. Design Literature review. Intervention(s) A search of Pubmed and Web of Science was conducted using the search terms HT and cognition, HT and mood. Clinical and observational studies were selected if they were published after the year 2000. Theories of HT mechanisms of action, pharmacology, biology, and observational and clinical trials are discussed. Result(s) Although observational and clinical trials show conflicting findings, methodologic considerations must be acknowledged. HT formulation and dose, route of administration, timing of initiation, length of treatment, and health of participants all contribute to inconsistencies in results. Transdermal estradiol and micronized progesterone administered at time of menopause are generally associated with cognitive and affective benefit. Conclusion(s) At the present time, results from existing studies are equivocal regarding the benefits of HT on cognition and affect. Future studies, such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), should address methodologic inconsistencies to provide clearer answers to this important question. © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Gleason C.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Gleason C.E.,Geriatric Research | Gleason C.E.,Wisconsin Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Dowling N.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 26 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2015

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women. KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3%) participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 μg/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2) plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME) models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs) to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4%) and 158 (22.8%) of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors) and mood evaluations (POMS), respectively. However, because LME models make full use all available data, including data from women with missing data, 95.5% of participants were included in the final analysis (n = 662 in cognitive analyses, and n = 661 in mood analyses). To be included in analyses, women must have provided baseline data, and data from at least one post-baseline visit. The mean length of follow-up was 2.85 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.49) for cognitive outcomes and 2.76 (SD = 0.57) for mood outcomes. No treatment-related benefits were found on cognitive outcomes. For mood, model estimates indicated that women treated with o-CEE showed improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over the 48 mo of treatment, compared to women on placebo. The model estimate for the depression subscale was −5.36 × 10−2(95% CI, −8.27 × 10−2to −2.44 × 10−2;ES = 0.49, p < 0.001) and for the anxiety subscale was −3.01 × 10−2(95% CI, −5.09 × 10−2to −9.34 × 10−3; ES = 0.26, p < 0.001). Mood outcomes for women randomized to t-E2 were similar to those for women on placebo. Importantly, the KEEPS-Cog results cannot be extrapolated to treatment longer than 4 y. The KEEPS-Cog findings suggest that for recently postmenopausal women, MHT did not alter cognition as hypothesized. However, beneficial mood effects with small to medium ESs were noted with 4 y of o-CEE, but not with 4 y of t-E2. The generalizability of these findings is limited to recently postmenopausal women with low cardiovascular risk profiles. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154180 Source

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