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München, Germany

Tzen E.,Center for Renewable Energy Sources CRES | Papapetroub M.,WIP Renewable Energies
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2012

The balance between water demand and availability has reached a critical level in many areas of Europe, the result of over-abstraction and prolonged periods of low rainfall or drought. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is one of the alternatives for ensuring a reliably supply of drinking water. Renewable energy sources (RES) coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water. Various initiatives and projects over the past few years have been covering the field of RE-desalination. The project entitled "Promotion of RES for Water Production through Desalination, ProDes" started on the 1st of October 2008 and it will run for two years. The ProDes project has been carefully designed in order to build on the past and exiting efforts and coordinate its activities with them in order to maximize the expected outcomes. The present paper presents the first results of the project and its general progress. © 2012 Desalination Publications.


Janssen R.,WIP Renewable Energies | Turhollow A.F.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Rutz D.,WIP Renewable Energies | Mergner R.,WIP Renewable Energies
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2013

Second-generation biofuel production facilities have been slower to reach large-scale production than was anticipated a few years ago even though in Europe, the Renewable Energy Directive provides incentives; in the United States there are also financial incentives and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 has targets for second-generation biofuels. But starting in 2013 it appears that significant quantities of second-generation biofuels will be produced. A variety of conversion processes, thermochemical and biological, as well as hybrids of the two is being utilized. There will be a variety of fuels - ethanol, drop-in fuels (e.g. gasoline, diesel), biodiesel, steam, electricity, bio-oil, sugars, and chemicals; and a variety of feedstocks - crop residues, wood, wood wastes, energy crops, waste oils and municipal solid waste (MSW). One approach to reducing the risk of moving from first- to second-generation biofuel production has been to take incremental steps such as converting the cellulosic part of grains into ethanol in addition to the starch portion. Many of the second-generation biofuel facilities are co-located with first-generation biofuel production facilities to share infrastructure as well as trade by-products (e.g. excess steam). One of the challenges has been financing, but both private and government sources are being utilized. Private sources include internal corporate funds and debt offerings, and venture capital. Government sources include the US federal government, the European Union, European national governments, and state and local governments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Janssen R.,WIP Renewable Energies | Rutz D.D.,WIP Renewable Energies
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kyritsis A.,Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Greece | Mathas E.,Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Greece | Antonucci D.,Institute for Renewable Energy | Antonucci D.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

This paper highlights the potential of adapting the energy profile of conventional office buildings in Southern Europe into a profile of Balanced Energy Buildings. The proposed energy adaptation does not only aim to satisfy the electricity consumption on an overall annual basis using intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), but seeks for a better instantaneous match of the on-site demand of the building with the production from RES. The self-consumption of locally generated clean electricity shall be maximized and peaks in energy transactions between building and grid are to be reduced. The aforementioned targets are pursued with the utilisation of intermittent RES (mainly solar PV systems in Southern Europe), active energy-saving techniques supported by ICT (Information & Communication Technology) technologies and energy storage systems. Beyond this, attention is given to the indoor climate comfort. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tsoutsos T.,Technical University of Crete | Tournaki S.,Technical University of Crete | Weiss I.,WIP Renewable Energies | Caneva S.,WIP Renewable Energies | And 18 more authors.
International Journal of Sustainable Energy | Year: 2015

Ambitious targets have been set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC and the high renewable energy scenario presented in Energy Roadmap 2050 by the European Commission. In order to reach these targets it is required detailed analysis on the competitiveness of photovoltaics (PV) electricity. The PV PARITY project, which is supported by the European Commission in the frame of the Intelligent Energy for Europe programme, scopes to provide the necessary support to the policy-makers in order to ensure a sustainable policy framework for the PV sector. Its main tasks are: (i) definition of PV competitiveness; (ii) roadmaps to PV grid parity; (iii) definition of the relevance of PV electricity import from Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries; and (iv) cost/benefits of the PV network integration. The current paper presents briefly the main methodology putting emphasis on the role of MENA countries in the PV competitiveness. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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