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Wu L.,WiOptix Inc. | Xie H.,University of Florida
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics | Year: 2010

We report an electrothermally-actuated microlens scanner that is suitable for biomedical imaging applications. The microlens has a large tunable range and a low driving voltage, and the lens is made of glass. The enabling device is a new electrothermal actuator design that is capable of large vertical actuation (∼0.9mm) on a 3 mm device footprint, with small lateral shift (<7μm) and tilting (<0.38°) at less than 4-V. The design, fabrication and characterization of the actuator are presented. Imaging results by the assembled microlens are also demonstrated. © 2006 IEEE.

Wu L.,WiOptix Inc. | Dooley S.,Air Force Research Lab | Watson E.A.,Air Force Research Lab | McManamon P.F.,University of Dayton | Xie H.,University of Florida
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems | Year: 2010

A tip-tilt-piston micromirror array based on electrothermal bimorph actuation is presented. The micromirror uses a compactly folded actuator design that can realize high fill-factor with a simple fabrication process. A 4 × 4 micromirror array with sub-apertures of 0.9 mm and a fill-factor of 54% is demonstrated. A piston actuation of about 200 μm and tip-tilt scanning of ± 18° optical angles are obtained at a driving voltage as small as 4.5 Vdc. The mirror's tip-tilt steering capability and piston control make it promising for optical phased array applications. The phased array concept is demonstrated by phasing two adjacent mirrors on the mirror array. Other device characterizations including frequency, transient response, and mirror surface quality are also reported. © 2010 IEEE.

Samuelson S.R.,University of Florida | Wu L.,WiOptix Inc. | Wu L.,DigitalOptics Corporation | Sun J.,University of Florida | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems | Year: 2012

This paper reports a miniature optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe and high-resolution 3-D OCT imaging results obtained with this side-view probe. The probe is only 2.8 mm in diameter, enabled by a unique high-fill-factor electrothermal MEMS mirror with hidden actuators and a novel wire-bonding-free packaging technique. The MEMS mirror has a large mirror aperture of 1 mm with a chip size of only 1.55 mm × 1.7 mm × 0.5 mm. The fabricated device achieves large 2-D scan optical angles up to 46° at only 4.8 V. The specific time-domain OCT system utilized is detailed, and the assembled side-view probe demonstrates multiple high-resolution 3-D OCT imaging results that demonstrate detailed images of a mouse ear and images detecting the presence of tumor cells, and the contrast with a normal tissue is qualitatively analyzed. © 2012 IEEE.

Liu L.,University of Florida | Wu L.,WiOptix Inc. | Sun J.,University of Florida | Lin E.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2011

We present the design and experimental results of a new MEMS-based endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe. The uniqueness of this miniature OCT imaging probe is a two-axis MEMS mirror with through-silicon vias (TSVs) for interconnecting. The TSV interconnection enables ultracompact probe design, successfully reducing the probe size to only 2.6 mm in diameter. The MEMS mirror is actuated by an electrothermal actuator that is capable of scanning 16 at only 3.6 V DC. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional OCT images of microspheres embedded in PDMS and acute rat brain tissue have been obtained with this miniature probe in a time-domain OCT system. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Sun J.,University of Florida | Guo S.,University of Florida | Wu L.,WiOptix Inc. | Choe S.-W.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Most cancers occur inside human body, so endoscopic high-resolution imaging modalities are required for early cancer detection and surgical removal. This paper reports in vivo endoscopic 3D imaging based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Endoscopic imaging is enabled by integrating rapid-scanning MEMS mirror into a miniature imaging probe. The MEMS mirror has an aperture size of 1 mm by 1 mm and a chip size of 2 mm by 2 mm. The optical scan angle exceeds ±25 V at 6 Vdc, and thus large, constant-velocity, linear scan can be realized. The outer diameter of the probe is only 5 mm. The axial resolution is about 10 μm and the imaging speed is 2.5 frames per second. Doppler OCT imaging has also been demonstrated. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

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