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Winsten J.R.,Winrock International | Kerchner C.D.,University of Vermont | Richardson A.,University of Vermont | Lichau A.,University of Vermont | Hyman J.M.,University of Vermont
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

This paper provides a summary of results from a recent survey of 987 dairy farmers in 4 northeastern US states. The survey results provide descriptive characteristics of the current state of dairy farming in the region, as well as farmer satisfaction levels, concerns, and plans for the future of their farming operations. The paper analyses characteristics of two increasingly important dairy production systems used in the Northeast. Averages from across the survey states (Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont) show that approximately 13% of dairy producers use management-intensive or rotational grazing and 7% use large, modern confinement systems with more than 300 cows. These more specialized production systems show many significant differences in farm and farmer characteristics, satisfaction levels, and plans for the future compared with farms using more traditional production systems. The changing structure of the dairy industry has potentially important implications for environmental quality, rural communities, and the food system. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Sonwa D.J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Walker S.,Winrock International | Nasi R.,CIFOR | Kanninen M.,CIFOR
Sustainability Science | Year: 2011

In Central Africa, important carbon stocks are stored in natural forest stands, while activities that modify the carbon storage occur in the forest landscape. Besides clean development mechanisms, the reduction of emission through deforestation and degradation (REDD) initiative is viewed as one way to mitigate climate change. Important forest habitat protection activities have already been implemented with the aim of conserving the biodiversity of the region in a sustainable manner. The main causes of land use changes in the region are small holder subsistence practices and logging activities. Agricultural production has low productivity levels and therefore investments in improved agricultural techniques can both reduce pressure on existing forests and perhaps allow for the reforestation of existing degraded lands. The logging industry is dominated by large, industrial scale, logging operations performing selective logging of specific species and large trees. The adoption of improved forest management practices can reduce the impact of such logging on the ecological integrity and carbon stocks. Some efforts to engage in the carbon market have begun in the region. Further research is needed into the types of projects that will most likely become successful in the region and what locations will offer the greatest benefits. © 2010 Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, United Nations University, and Springer. Source


Sharma M.,Winrock International
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2012

The Government of Nepal's electronic-governance initiatives remain beyond the access of the majority of Nepal's population. Many are not even aware that such services exist. This is because due to Nepal's difficult terrain, two vital vehicles for e-governance services -access to energy/the national electricity grid and internet penetration - are both negligible. Rural populations stand to benefit the most from e-governance services, yet they continue to be overlooked by government and non-government information and communications (ICT)-based development activities largely on grounds of lack of access to energy sources. A recently completed ICT project funded by Intel Corporation and implemented by Winrock International challenged this bottleneck to efficient rollout of e-governance services, and has demonstrated a successful shift in the national rural ICT paradigm. This paper communicates the experience of a pioneering community-based activity to extend electronic services, including e-governance, in remote un-electrified communities in Nepal. This public-private partnership between rural communities, local and national governments, and a non-government organization harnessed energy generated from small solar photovoltaic and micro-hydro systems to operate power-efficient ICT and e-services. The ICT infrastructure is housed in local government schools, and has enabled rural communities to access multifaceted e-services beyond the electricity grid network. Copyright 2012 ACM. Source


Haskett J.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Schlamadinger B.,Joanneum Research | Brown S.,Winrock International
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2010

Climate change is occurring with greater speed and intensity that previously anticipated. All effective environmentally and socially sound mitigation efforts need to be employed to effectively address this global crisis. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) projects can provide significant climate change mitigation benefits as well as poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation benefits. The policies of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), the world's largest carbon market exclude LULUCF. Scientific support for this exclusion was presented in a briefing paper published by the Climate Action Network-Europe (CAN) that puts forward the proposition that land based storage of carbon is ineffective. A careful review of the scientific papers cited in support of CAN's position indicates that, while the papers themselves are scientifically sound, they do not support the continued exclusion of LULUCF projects from the EU-ETS. At the same time some important recent research papers that describe the carbon storage and social benefit potential of such projects are not included in the analysis. An in-depth consideration of the scientific evidence is necessary in evaluating this policy option. Based on this evidence a case can be made for the inclusion of LULUCF projects in the EU-ETS. ©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source


Chalmers J.,Winrock International | Archer G.,Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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