Wingate, NC, United States

Wingate University

www.wingate.edu
Wingate, NC, United States

Wingate University is a private comprehensive university with nearly 2,700 students on three campuses in Wingate, Charlotte and Hendersonville, in North Carolina, United States. It was founded by Baptists in 1896 as Wingate School, an independent, co-educational institution and became a four-year college in 1977. In 1996, Wingate College became Wingate University.The university offers 34 undergraduate majors, 37 minors and career concentrations, numerous pre-professional programs, graduate degrees in business, accounting, education, physician assistant studies and sport administration, and doctorates in pharmacy, physical therapy and education.Wingate University is listed sixth among Best Value colleges and universities in the South based on quality and net cost according to the recently released ranking of the nation's top schools in U.S. News & World Report's 2012 Best Colleges. Wingate student athletes compete in 22 NCAA Division II sports, and the University has won the South Atlantic Conference Echols Athletic Excellence Award for the past seven years. Wingate University's main campus is located in Union County, North Carolina on a 400-acre campus 30 miles east of Charlotte. A high percentage of students live on campus all four years. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has analyzed more than a dozen metrics to determine the best two-year and four-year schools in North Carolina for 2017. 50 four-year colleges and universities were ranked, and Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, Wake Forest University and Queens University of Charlotte were the top five. Of the 50 two-year schools also made the list, with McDowell Technical Community College, Rockingham Community College, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, Pitt Community College and Durham Technical Community College taking the top five positions. A complete list of schools is included below. “Students in North Carolina have a lot of options when it comes to earning a certificate or degree, but the schools on our list have distinguished themselves as being a cut above the rest,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.org. “Not only do they offer solid educational programs, they also have career services that lead to strong post-college earnings.” To be included on the “Best Colleges in North Carolina” list, all schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is ranked on additional statistics including the number of degree programs offered, the availability of career and academic resources, the opportunity for financial aid, graduation rates and annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Best Colleges in North Carolina” list, visit: The Best Four-Year Colleges in North Carolina for 2017 include: Appalachian State University Barton College Belmont Abbey College Bennett College Brevard College Campbell University Catawba College Chowan University Davidson College Duke University East Carolina University Elizabeth City State University Elon University Fayetteville State University Gardner-Webb University Greensboro College Guilford College High Point University Johnson C Smith University Lees-McRae College Lenoir-Rhyne University Livingstone College Mars Hill University Meredith College Methodist University Montreat College North Carolina A & T State University North Carolina Central University North Carolina State University at Raleigh North Carolina Wesleyan College Pfeiffer University Piedmont International University Queens University of Charlotte Saint Augustine's University Salem College Shaw University St Andrews University University of Mount Olive University of North Carolina at Asheville University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Charlotte University of North Carolina at Greensboro University of North Carolina at Pembroke University of North Carolina Wilmington Wake Forest University Warren Wilson College Western Carolina University William Peace University Wingate University Winston-Salem State University The Best Two-Year Colleges in North Carolina for 2017 include: Alamance Community College Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College Beaufort County Community College Bladen Community College Blue Ridge Community College Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute Cape Fear Community College Carolinas College of Health Sciences Carteret Community College Catawba Valley Community College Central Carolina Community College Central Piedmont Community College Cleveland Community College Coastal Carolina Community College College of the Albemarle Craven Community College Davidson County Community College Durham Technical Community College Fayetteville Technical Community College Forsyth Technical Community College Gaston College Guilford Technical Community College Halifax Community College Haywood Community College James Sprunt Community College Johnston Community College Lenoir Community College Martin Community College McDowell Technical Community College Mitchell Community College Montgomery Community College Nash Community College Pamlico Community College Piedmont Community College Pitt Community College Randolph Community College Rockingham Community College Rowan-Cabarrus Community College Sandhills Community College South Piedmont Community College Southeastern Community College Southwestern Community College Stanly Community College Surry Community College Vance-Granville Community College Wake Technical Community College Wayne Community College Western Piedmont Community College Wilkes Community College Wilson Community College ### About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

“I put them on, and it was like a miracle,” says neuropathy sufferer and study subject, Mr. Tim Kelley. Walkasins work by restoring sensory signals that are not functioning normally in patients with neuropathy. This immediate restoration of sensory function also impressed Dr. Diane Wrisley of Wingate University. “His brain learned to use the Walkasins immediately," says Wrisley. "He put them on and it was like, ‘Wow! I know where I am in space.’ His improvement is phenomenal.” Minneapolis, MN, May 10, 2017 --( Over 40% of diabetic patients develop neuropathy, which negatively affects quality of life and confidence to walk without falling. “These exciting results have exceeded our expectations and illustrate how Walkasins can significantly improve the lives of millions of patients who experience gait and balance problems due to peripheral neuropathy,” says Dr. Lars Oddsson, co-inventor of the technology and President of RxFunction. “This is a game-changer that can improve health and quality of life and help decrease healthcare costs,” says Dr. Oddsson. With neuropathy, “you don’t know where your feet are in space,” says Dr. Diane Wrisley, Principal Investigator of the study and Director of Post-Professional Programs for Wingate University’s Department of Physical Therapy. “It’s like you’re walking with bricks on your legs.” Tim Kelley, a volunteer participant in the research study at Wingate developed diabetes three years ago. Kelley lost his truck driving license, his career of 31 years, as he became unable to drive due to his peripheral neuropathy. Over the next three years, Mr. Kelley lost confidence in his ability to walk and move safely, gained 30 lbs and even used a wheelchair for getting around. He attended physical therapy in the months leading up to the study but had noticed limited improvements. Mr. Kelley has shown dramatic changes following his participation in the Walkasins study at Wingate University. “I put them on, and it was like a miracle,” Kelley says. Walkasins work by restoring sensory signals that are not functioning normally in patients with neuropathy. This immediate restoration of sensory function also impressed Dr. Wrisley; “His brain learned to use the Walkasins immediately. He put them on and it was like, ‘Wow! I know where I am in space.’ His improvement is phenomenal,” Wrisley says. Dr. Wrisley has tracked Mr. Kelley’s improvement in gait and balance using standardized measurement tools, the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) and the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BEST). After a month of daily Walkasins use, these measures have continued to improve even further. “We may be maxing out the FGA and Mini-BEST. He almost has perfect scores in them,” Dr. Wrisley said. What this means for Mr. Kelly is that he has gone from using a wheel chair to get around to now where he can walk 2-3 miles with confidence. Dr. Wrisley has seen Mr. Kelley’s self-confidence improve immensely with Walkasins use as measured by the Activities Specific Balance Confidence scale (validated clinical outcomes measure). Patients with a confidence score below 67% are predictive to have an 84% chance of falling. Mr. Kelley has changed from 24% to 74% (on a zero to 100% scale). Another measurement of improvement is Mr. Kelley’s increased walking speed which has improved more than 0.5m/s since using Walkasins. Walking speed is an important indicator of overall health and has been termed “the Sixth Vital Sign”; it’s a simple measure that can predict future health status, physical decline, adverse events and even death. Studies have associated increments of 0.1 m/s of walking speed improvements with improved health status, less physical disability, fewer hospitalization days, and a one-year reduction in medical costs of $1,188. “We’re thrilled to be able to report these results during Peripheral Neuropathy Awareness Week,” says Dan Leach, CEO of RxFunction. “We’re energized by the exuberance shown by our trial patients and are looking forward to helping millions of people who have peripheral neuropathy with the release of Walkasins later this year.” Interview with Mr. Kelley (trial patient at Wingate University, NC): Once on the market, Walkasins will be available by prescription following an assessment for neuropathy, clinical need, and physical benefit. About RxFunction Inc. RxFunction Inc. is a wearable technology company with an initial focus on developing and leading a new business segment within the U.S. medical grade assistive technology marketplace. The Company’s vision is to improve physical ability for social participation and quality of life. Privately held and headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, RxFunction has taken assignment of patented technology developed by Co-founder, Dr. Lars Oddsson, as a research professor at Boston University’s Neuromuscular Research Center, and funded by Edina, MN Investment Bank, Cedar Point Capital, and the NIH’s National Institute on Aging (SBIR Grant AG040865). Walkasins have not been submitted to the FDA for review, and are not available for sale at this time. Additional information about RxFunction is available at Dan Leach, dleach@rxfunction.com Minneapolis, MN, May 10, 2017 --( PR.com )-- RxFunction, manufacturer of Walkasins® - the first Wearable Sensory Prosthesis to help improve balance, announced exciting results from an ongoing research study at Wingate University on the long-term benefits of Walkasins use. Walkasins help improve gait and balance in patients who have peripheral neuropathy, a condition that significantly increases the risk of falling due to loss of balance. The Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy reports an estimated 40 Million Americans have some form of peripheral neuropathy, most commonly due to diabetes or chemotherapy.Over 40% of diabetic patients develop neuropathy, which negatively affects quality of life and confidence to walk without falling.“These exciting results have exceeded our expectations and illustrate how Walkasins can significantly improve the lives of millions of patients who experience gait and balance problems due to peripheral neuropathy,” says Dr. Lars Oddsson, co-inventor of the technology and President of RxFunction. “This is a game-changer that can improve health and quality of life and help decrease healthcare costs,” says Dr. Oddsson.With neuropathy, “you don’t know where your feet are in space,” says Dr. Diane Wrisley, Principal Investigator of the study and Director of Post-Professional Programs for Wingate University’s Department of Physical Therapy. “It’s like you’re walking with bricks on your legs.”Tim Kelley, a volunteer participant in the research study at Wingate developed diabetes three years ago. Kelley lost his truck driving license, his career of 31 years, as he became unable to drive due to his peripheral neuropathy. Over the next three years, Mr. Kelley lost confidence in his ability to walk and move safely, gained 30 lbs and even used a wheelchair for getting around. He attended physical therapy in the months leading up to the study but had noticed limited improvements.Mr. Kelley has shown dramatic changes following his participation in the Walkasins study at Wingate University. “I put them on, and it was like a miracle,” Kelley says. Walkasins work by restoring sensory signals that are not functioning normally in patients with neuropathy. This immediate restoration of sensory function also impressed Dr. Wrisley; “His brain learned to use the Walkasins immediately. He put them on and it was like, ‘Wow! I know where I am in space.’ His improvement is phenomenal,” Wrisley says.Dr. Wrisley has tracked Mr. Kelley’s improvement in gait and balance using standardized measurement tools, the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) and the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BEST). After a month of daily Walkasins use, these measures have continued to improve even further. “We may be maxing out the FGA and Mini-BEST. He almost has perfect scores in them,” Dr. Wrisley said. What this means for Mr. Kelly is that he has gone from using a wheel chair to get around to now where he can walk 2-3 miles with confidence.Dr. Wrisley has seen Mr. Kelley’s self-confidence improve immensely with Walkasins use as measured by the Activities Specific Balance Confidence scale (validated clinical outcomes measure). Patients with a confidence score below 67% are predictive to have an 84% chance of falling. Mr. Kelley has changed from 24% to 74% (on a zero to 100% scale).Another measurement of improvement is Mr. Kelley’s increased walking speed which has improved more than 0.5m/s since using Walkasins. Walking speed is an important indicator of overall health and has been termed “the Sixth Vital Sign”; it’s a simple measure that can predict future health status, physical decline, adverse events and even death. Studies have associated increments of 0.1 m/s of walking speed improvements with improved health status, less physical disability, fewer hospitalization days, and a one-year reduction in medical costs of $1,188.“We’re thrilled to be able to report these results during Peripheral Neuropathy Awareness Week,” says Dan Leach, CEO of RxFunction. “We’re energized by the exuberance shown by our trial patients and are looking forward to helping millions of people who have peripheral neuropathy with the release of Walkasins later this year.”Interview with Mr. Kelley (trial patient at Wingate University, NC): youtu.be/MEq-nRnsAVU Once on the market, Walkasins will be available by prescription following an assessment for neuropathy, clinical need, and physical benefit.About RxFunction Inc.RxFunction Inc. is a wearable technology company with an initial focus on developing and leading a new business segment within the U.S. medical grade assistive technology marketplace. The Company’s vision is to improve physical ability for social participation and quality of life. Privately held and headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, RxFunction has taken assignment of patented technology developed by Co-founder, Dr. Lars Oddsson, as a research professor at Boston University’s Neuromuscular Research Center, and funded by Edina, MN Investment Bank, Cedar Point Capital, and the NIH’s National Institute on Aging (SBIR Grant AG040865). Walkasins have not been submitted to the FDA for review, and are not available for sale at this time.Additional information about RxFunction is available at www.rxfunction.com Press Contact: Dan Leach, dleach@rxfunction.com Tim Kelley, Walkasins Study Subject Tim Kelley demonstrating using Walkasins during a walk in his Monroe, NC neighborhood. Filename: tn_TimKelleywalking120170325.jpg Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from RxFunction.com


Koliscak L.,Wingate University
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2012

Purpose. Published evidence on the incidence and predictors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver is reviewed. Summary. The frequently observed phenomenon of elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) values in patients with cirrhosis has led to a theory of "autoanticoagulation" and the assertion that such patients may not benefit from the VTE risk-reduction therapies routinely used in other groups of hospitalized patients. A literature search identified six reports specifically addressing the issue of VTE risk in patients with cirrhosis. Reported rates of VTE development in such patients vary widely (0.5-8.2%) as a result of investigators' use of varying study methods and endpoints. The results of three studies (including two studies of longitudinal data on about 100,000 and nearly 450,000 patients) found no significant correlation of INR values and VTE risk. With regard to potential clinical markers of VTE risk in the context of cirrhosis, data from two studies suggested that serum albumin might serve as a reliable marker of coagulation status and, therefore, VTE risk. The results of other studies indicated that independent predictors of VTE in patients with cirrhosis include malnutrition and significant comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure. In aggregate, the available evidence does not support the autoanticoagulation theory. Conclusion. In hospitalized patients with cirrhosis who have elevated INR values, pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis should be strongly considered if there is no active or recent bleeding and if more than one risk factor for VTE is present. Copyright © 2012, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.


Amabile C.M.,Wingate University | Vasudevan A.,Neurology Hospitalist
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Epilepsy is defined as a tendency toward recurrent seizures unprovoked by any systemic or acute neurologic insults. It is a disruption of the electrical conductivity or activity in the brain, resulting in a seizure. In the United States, approximately 120 of every 100,000 people seek medical attention due to new seizure activity. Ezogabine, known as retigabine in Europe, is an ethyl N-(2- amino-4-[{fluorophenyl}methlamino]phenylcarbamate). The drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency for adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Ezogabine exerts its therapeutic effect by enhancing transmembrane potassium channels (KCNQ ion channels), which is a novel mechanism in comparison with other antiepileptics. There are no specific documented contraindications to ezogabine. Warnings target patients that have benign prostatic hyperplasia or are receiving concomitant anticholinergic drugs due to a risk of urinary retention (2%). The FDA has required that ezogabine be part of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy program in order to inform health care professionals of the risk of urinary retention. Prescribers should inform patients that ezogabine can cause urinary retention, including urinary hesitation, and instruct them to seek immediate medical attention if these symptoms occur. A medication guide has been developed for distribution to patients.


Dirks-Naylor A.J.,Wingate University | Lennon-Edwards S.,University of Delaware
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

It is thought that every cell in the body expresses the vitamin D receptor, and therefore vitamin D may play a role in health and homeostasis of every organ system, including skeletal muscle. Human, animal, and cell culture studies have collectively shown that vitamin D affects muscle strength and function. Vitamin D functions in a plethora of cellular processes in skeletal muscle including calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, fiber size, prevention of fatty degeneration, protection against insulin resistance and arachidonic acid mobilization. These processes appear to be mediated by several signaling pathways affected by vitamin D. This review aims to explore the effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle in each model system and to delineate potential cell signaling pathways affected by vitamin D. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Klibanov O.M.,Wingate University | Gale S.E.,Wingate University | Santevecchi B.,Wingate University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: To review the data with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Data Sources: Phase I, II, and III trials and review articles were identified through MEDLINE (1996-January 2015) and PubMed (1996-January 2015), conference abstracts, and US national clinical trials registry, using the keywords NS3/4A protease inhibitor, NS5A inhibitor, NS5B polymerase inhibitor, ABT-450, ABT-267, ABT-333, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Preclinical, phase I, II, and III studies describing pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and tolerability were identified. Data Synthesis: Noncirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1b experienced sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of therapy (SVR12) rates of 96% to 100% when ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir were administered for 12 weeks, regardless of inclusion of ribavirin. SVR12 rates of 95% to 97% were seen in noncirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1a infection who received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for 12 weeks. Patients with Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis also experienced high SVR12 rates (91.8%) when ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir were administered with ribavirin for 12 weeks. Cirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1a and a history of prior null response to peginterferon/ribavirin have higher SVR12 rates when ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir and ribavirin are administered for 24 instead of 12 weeks (94.2% vs 88.6%). Adverse events are typically mild, most commonly consisting of fatigue, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. Conclusion: The regimen consisting of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir is highly efficacious in the treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection, with minimal adverse events. It is expected to play an important role in the armamentarium of novel agents that have a high chance of curing HCV infection. © The Author(s) 2015.


Harris K.B.,Wingate University | McCarty D.J.,Wingate University
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been evaluated for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its role in glucose regulation. Four GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) are currently indicated for T2DM in the USA. Exenatide and liraglutide are short-acting and require twice-daily and daily dosing, respectively. Two longer acting agents, exenatide long-acting release (LAR) and albiglutide, were formulated to allow for once-weekly dosing. All four GLP-1 RAs have demonstrated reductions in hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, and body weight both as monotherapy and in combination with first- and second-line diabetes agents including metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. Greater glycemic control was seen with liraglutide compared with the other GLP-1 treatment options; however, the two long-acting agents were superior to exenatide twice daily. All agents were well tolerated with most adverse events being mild or moderate in nature. The most common adverse event was transient nausea which typically resolved 4–8 weeks after treatment initiation. Long-acting agents had lower rates of nausea but an increased incidence of injection site reactions. Trials have suggested GLP-1 RAs may improve cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, lipid parameters and inflammatory markers. Future trials are needed to confirm the clinical outcomes of these agents. Overall, GLP-1 RAs will provide benefit for patients with T2DM intolerable to or not reaching glycemic goals with first-line agents, especially in patients in need of weight loss. © The Author(s), 2014.


Olin J.L.,Wingate University | St. Pierre M.,Wingate University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Objective: To review the literature evaluating the benefit and tolerability of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in breast cancer risk reduction. Data Source: A PubMed search (1966-July 2014) was conducted using the key terms breast cancer risk reduction, with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole, or aromatase inhibitors. Abstracts from recent breast cancer symposia were reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All English-language articles were reviewed for inclusion. The references of articles were reviewed for additional studies. The review focused on AI trials in women without preexisting cancer; review articles, preclinical studies, and studies of AI use in early-stage cancer were excluded. Data Synthesis: Lifestyle modifications, surgery, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are options for women at high risk for breast cancer compared with the general population. Statements published by various organizations help guide appropriate patient selection. Toxicities with SERMs, including increased risk for endometrial cancer, thromboembolic events, and cataracts, have limited their utility. AIs inhibit the endogenous production of estrogen and are mechanistically distinct from SERMs. Placebo-controlled trials with exemestane and anastrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer risk factors demonstrated at least 50% efficacy in invasive breast cancer reduction and were well tolerated. Vasomotor symptoms were experienced, but no differences in fractures or cardiovascular events were observed. Summary: Exemestane and anastrozole appear to offer benefit for postmenopausal woman at high risk for invasive breast cancer and are well tolerated. AIs offer an alternative for high-risk postmenopausal women desiring chemoprevention but with SERM contraindications. More trials are warranted to help further guide appropriate patient selection. © The Author(s) 2014.


Taylor S.R.,Wingate University | Harris K.B.,Wingate University
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

The use of currently available antihyperglycemic agents can be limited by contraindications; cost; renal and hepatic dosage adjustments; dosing schedules; and adverse effects such as gastrointestinal upset, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. These limitations have led the pharmaceutical industry to identify and pursue alternative therapies. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors belong to a new class of diabetes drugs and have a novel mechanism of action. These agents are unique in that they increase glucose excretion, independent of insulin secretion, by inhibiting the renal reabsorption of glucose, inducing glycosuria. To summarize the current evidence for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy, we reviewed abstracts and published data from human trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin through February 2013. Data from these trials suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitors are able to lower hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose when used as either monotherapy or combination therapy. Cardiometabolic benefits included a reduction in systolic blood pressure, reduction in triglycerides, and weight loss of up to 3 kg. Common and serious adverse effects including infections, cancer, and pollakiuria were identified and reviewed. Although these agents have generally demonstrated efficacy, the adverse effects associated with dapagliflozin have caused a delay in its regulatory approval. Continued research in this area will determine the risk:benefit ratio of SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.


Dirks-Naylor A.J.,Wingate University
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, however, its use is limited by cardiotoxicity. The mechanisms causing cardiotoxicity have not been clearly elucidated, but known to involve, at least in part, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. More recently, it has been suggested that dysregulation of autophagy may also play an important role in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Autophagy has dual functions. Under physiological conditions, autophagy is essential for optimal cellular function and survival by ridding the cell of damaged or unwanted proteins and organelles. Under pathological conditions, autophagy may be stimulated in order to protect the cell from stress stimuli or, alternatively, to contribute to cell death. Thus, appropriate regulation of autophagy can be a matter of life or death. The role of autophagy in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity has recently been explored, however, conflicting reports on the effects of Dox on autophagy and its role in cardiotoxicity exist. Most, but not all, of the studies conclude that Dox upregulates cardiac autophagy and contributes to the pathogenesis of Dox-induced toxicity. Dox may induce autophagy by suppressing the expression of GATA4 and/or S6K1, which may directly or indirectly regulate expression of essential autophagy genes such as Atg12, Atg5, Beclin1 and Bcl-2. Interestingly, the Dox-induced autophagic response may be species specific as Dox treatment has been shown to stimulate autophagy in rat models, but suppress autophagy in mouse models. Additional studies will elucidate this possibility. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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