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Chikweto A.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Kumthekar S.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Tiwari K.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Nyack B.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Grenada is considered high. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in Caribbean Islands. Serum samples of 750 food animals in Grenada and Carriacou were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, 125 or higher) were found in 23.1% of 247 pigs, 44.1% of 204 sheep, 42.8% of 180 goats, and 8.4% of 119 cattle. Seroprevalence increased with age, indicating postnatal acquisition of T. gondii. Antibody titers of 1:200 or higher were present in 65 of 90 seropositive sheep, 61 of 77 seropositive goats, and 23 of 57 seropositive pigs. However, none of the cattle had a MAT titer of 1:200, suggesting that bovines are a poor host for T. gondii. Results indicate that pigs, sheep, and goats could be important sources of T. gondii infection if their meat is consumed undercooked. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.


Macpherson C.C.,St. George's University | Akpinar-Elci M.,Windward Islands
Public Health Ethics | Year: 2015

Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the contextdependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen. © The Author 2015.


Patel R.H.,Windward Islands | Pedersen K.,Windward Islands | Kotelnikova S.,Windward Islands
Journal of Environmental Health | Year: 2010

The dilution rates of indicators Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli were studied from the St. Johns River estuary in Grenada, West Indies. Health risk zones were established based on the levels of bacteriological pollution. In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) health risk guidelines, risks were in the range of <1% gastrointestinal (GI); <0.3% acute febrile respiratory illness (AFRI) to a 1%-5% GI; and 0.9%-1.9% AFRI within 100 m from the St. John's River outflow site in St. George's Bay. These values were the result of river water dilution, where the most probable number (MPN) levels for both indicator organisms from the river were equivalent to that of raw sewage with an AFRI health risk of >3.9% and a GI risk of >10%. The distance intervals farther than 100 m showed fluctuating values and corresponding health risks. E. faecalis and E. coli strains isolated were resistant to 35.7% and 42.9% of the antibiotics tested, respectively.


Bidaisee S.,St. George's University | Bidaisee S.,Windward Islands | Macpherson C.N.L.,Windward Islands | Macpherson C.N.L.,St. George's University
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (P = 0.000). Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (P = 0.022, P = 0.003, and P = 0.021, resp.). Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact. © 2014 Satesh Bidaisee and Calum N. L. Macpherson.


Macpherson C.N.L.,St. George's University | Macpherson C.N.L.,Windward Islands
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Dogs are appreciated and kept or tolerated in high numbers, playing a variety of roles in human society. The relationship facilitates over 65 zoonoses whose distribution depends on a complex interplay between the hosts and environment. Children are most at risk. Some national/local control programmes have been implemented. © CAB International 2013.


PubMed | University of Pavia and Windward Islands
Type: | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2017

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis, results in cyst formation in the viscera. Cyst morphology depends on developmental stage. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a standardized ultrasound (US) classification for CE, for use among experts as a standard of comparison. This study examined the reliability of this classification. Eleven international CE and US experts completed an assessment of eight WHO classification images and 88 test images representing cyst stages. Inter- and intraobserver reliability and observer performance were assessed using Fleiss and Cohens kappa. Interobserver reliability was moderate for WHO images ( = 0.600, P < 0.0001) and substantial for test images ( = 0.644, P < 0.0001), with substantial to almost perfect interobserver reliability for stages with pathognomonic signs (CE1, CE2, and CE3) for WHO (0.618 < < 0.904) and test images (0.642 < < 0.768). Comparisons of expert performances against the majority classification for each image were significant for WHO (0.413 < < 1.000, P < 0.005) and test images (0.718 < < 0.905, P < 0.0001); and intraobserver reliability was significant for WHO (0.520 < < 1.000, P < 0.005) and test images (0.690 < < 0.896, P < 0.0001). Findings demonstrate moderate to substantial interobserver and substantial to almost perfect intraobserver reliability for the WHO classification, with substantial to almost perfect interobserver reliability for pathognomonic stages. This confirms experts abilities to reliably identify WHO-defined pathognomonic signs of CE, demonstrating that the WHO classification provides a reproducible way of staging CE.


News Article | September 26, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

(Reuters) - A large, low-pressure area located about 1,150 miles east-southeast of the Windward Islands has a 50 percent chance of developing into a cyclone in the next 48 hours, the U.S. National Hurricane Center said on Monday.


News Article | September 27, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

(Reuters) - A broad area of low pressure located about 600 miles east-southeast of the Windward Islands has a 90 percent chance of developing into a tropical cyclone in the next 48 hours, the U.S. National Hurricane Center said on Tuesday.


News Article | September 26, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

(Reuters) - A large, low-pressure area located about 950 miles east-southeast of the Windward Islands has a 70 percent chance of developing into a cyclone in the next 48 hours, the U.S. National Hurricane Center said on Monday.

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