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Macpherson C.N.L.,St. Georges University | Macpherson C.N.L.,Windward Islands
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Dogs are appreciated and kept or tolerated in high numbers, playing a variety of roles in human society. The relationship facilitates over 65 zoonoses whose distribution depends on a complex interplay between the hosts and environment. Children are most at risk. Some national/local control programmes have been implemented. © CAB International 2013.

Patel S.,St. Georges University | Bhatnagar A.,St. Georges University | Wear C.,St. Georges University | Osiro S.,St. Georges University | And 9 more authors.
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Central nervous system tumors are the second most common form of cancer in children between the ages of 1 and 19 years. We aimed to provide the most recent data on the incidence and survival of these tumors in the USA and to assess the literature. Methods: Frequency, rates, and survival sessions were calculated using the November 2008 submission for the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program. Data were collected and analyzed for children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 years with primary brain tumors. Results: We found that the incidence rate of all pediatric brain tumors has been on a gradual but steady increase from 1973 to 2008 (p <0.001). The average annual increase was 1.37%. Our survival analysis of the individual tumors revealed that the 5-year overall survival for children diagnosed between 1974 and 1978 with medulloblastoma was 43.7%. However, this increased to 62.8% for children diagnosed between 1999 and 2003. A similar survival trend was also observed when all the other pediatric brain cancer histologies were collectively analyzed (p <0.001). Conclusions: Fromour study, we can conclude that contrary to previous reports indicating a plateau in the incidence rates of pediatric brain tumors since the mid-1980s, there has been an increase from 1973 to 2008. Potential causes include environmental carcinogens, but more research is needed to investigate the factors behind this sustained rise in incidence over the years. © Springer-Verlag 2013.

Macpherson C.C.,St. Georges University | Akpinar-Elci M.,Windward Islands
Public Health Ethics | Year: 2015

Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the contextdependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen. © The Author 2015.

Chikweto A.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Kumthekar S.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Tiwari K.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Nyack B.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Grenada is considered high. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in Caribbean Islands. Serum samples of 750 food animals in Grenada and Carriacou were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, 125 or higher) were found in 23.1% of 247 pigs, 44.1% of 204 sheep, 42.8% of 180 goats, and 8.4% of 119 cattle. Seroprevalence increased with age, indicating postnatal acquisition of T. gondii. Antibody titers of 1:200 or higher were present in 65 of 90 seropositive sheep, 61 of 77 seropositive goats, and 23 of 57 seropositive pigs. However, none of the cattle had a MAT titer of 1:200, suggesting that bovines are a poor host for T. gondii. Results indicate that pigs, sheep, and goats could be important sources of T. gondii infection if their meat is consumed undercooked. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.

Wood H.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Drebot M.A.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Dewailly E.,Laval University | Dillon L.,Public Health Agency of Canada | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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