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Kloten, Switzerland

DeForest D.K.,Windward
Integrated environmental assessment and management

In Europe, the European Union's Existing Substances Regulation (EEC 793/93), the REACH Regulation, and Water Framework Directive all share common guidance for conducting environmental effects assessments, which can be further used to derive predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and environmental quality standards (EQS) for chemical substances. To meet the criteria for using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) in the effects assessment of Ni for marine organisms, chronic toxicity data from the published scientific literature were augmented with toxicity testing of several additional marine species including: a unicellular alga (Dunalliela tertiolecta), a diatom (Skeletonema costatum), 2 macroalgae (Champia parvula, Macrocystis pyrifera), 2 mollusks (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis), 2 echinoderms (Dendraster excentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), a polychaete (Neanthes arenaceodentata), and a fish (Cyprinodon variegatus). Based on this updated database, which includes chronic Ni toxicity data for a total of 17 marine species, HC5 values (hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species) were derived using an SSD. The most sensitive species is a tropical sea urchin from the Caribbean region, Diadema antillarum, which has an EC10 that is approximately 6-fold less than the EC10 for the second most sensitive species tested. There is some uncertainty in the representativeness of D. antillarum to temperate European marine waters because 1) a European sea urchin species (Paracentrotus lividus) is approximately 48-fold less sensitive to Ni, and (2) ambient marine Ni concentrations in at least some European waters closely approach the D. antillarum EC10. The HC5 values with and without D. antillarum included in the SSD are 3.9 and 20.9 μg/L, respectively. Site-specific toxicity testing with local species may be warranted for locations where Ni concentrations fall between the range in HC5s of 3.9 to 20.9 μg/L. © 2013 SETAC. Source

Novikova T.,Institute of Geodynamics | Papadopoulos G.A.,Institute of Geodynamics | McCoy F.W.,Windward
Geophysical Journal International

Tsunami generated by the Late Bronze Age (LBA) eruption of Thera were simulated using synthetic tide records produced for selected nearshore (~20 m depths) sites of northern Crete, the Cyclades Islands, SW Turkey and Sicily. Inundation distances inland were also calculated along northern Crete. Modelling was performed by incorporating fully non-linear Boussinesq wave theory with two tsunamigenic mechanisms. The first involved the entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea, assuming a thick (55 m; 30 km3) flow entering the sea along the south coast of Thera in three different directions all directed towards northern Crete, then a thin pyroclastic flow (1 m; 1.2 km3) entering the sea along the north coast of Thera directed towards the Cyclades Islands. Flows were modelled as a solid block that slowly decelerates along a horizontal surface. The second mechanism assumed caldera collapse, of 19 km3 and 34 km3 modelled as a dynamic landslide producing rapid vertical displacements. Calculated nearshore wave amplitudes varied from a few metres to 28 m along northern Crete from pyroclastic flows, and up to 19 m from caldera collapse (34 km3 volume). Inundation distances on Crete were 250-450 m. Waves produced by pyroclastic flows were highly focused, however, as a function of sea entry direction. Smaller volume pyroclastic flows produced nearshore wave amplitudes up to 4 m in the Cyclades islands north of Thera. Wave amplitudes in the Cyclades from smaller volume caldera collapse (19 km3) were up to 24 m, whereas in SW Turkey were as low as 2.1 and 0.8 m (Didim and Fethye where LBA tsunami deposits have been found). Wave amplitudes for the larger volume caldera collapse (34 km3) were generally 2.5-3 times larger than those generated by the smaller volume collapse (19 km3). These results provide estimates for understanding possible consequences of tsunami impact in LBA coastal zones, thus providing criteria at archaeological sites for detecting inundation damage, as well as for contemporary hazard assessment; they also provide additional criteria for deciphering homogenite layers in the abyssal stratigraphy of the Ionian and eastern Mediterranean Seas. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS. Source

Boyd J.K.,Windward
Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action

Students from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds have historically experienced high rates of college dropout. Surveys often are used to assess supports and barriers (SB) to college enrollment and completion, and findings drive the design of interventions to improve student recruitment and retention. However, standard surveys may not include questions that solicit the breadth of issues facing low-income minority individuals. We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop an SB survey to better reflect the concerns of rural, first-generation college students in Hawai'i. An advisory panel (AP) of students and community partners guided the work. The literature informed the first draft of the SB survey. Then we worked with students who had successfully completed a vocational Nurse Aide (NA) Training Program (NATP) course to refine four versions of the SB survey through multiple cycles of online survey review and focus groups. The final product included questions in new areas and differently phrased questions in standard areas (e.g., transportation, dependent care, housing, financial aid) to better capture reasons for students dropping out. The survey has proven useful as a student assessment tool, and findings are being used by instructors, counselors, and community partners to add resources and modify programs to increase student success in community college. Findings confirm the usefulness of engaging target partners in tool development. An enhanced understanding of SB of students from underrepresented groups will help to improve college recruitment and retention interventions. Source

Deforest D.K.,Windward | Van Genderen E.J.,ZINC Inc
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) current ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for zinc in freshwater are hardness-based and were last updated in 1995. The acute and chronic freshwater toxicity databases have since expanded substantially and the U.S. EPA's minimum phylogenetic diversity requirements for chronic zinc toxicity are now met (an acute:chronic ratio was previously required). Additionally, several acute and chronic biotic ligand models (BLMs) for zinc have since been developed and validated for freshwater organisms. Using the expanded toxicity database and existing BLMs, we developed a unified zinc BLM that could efficiently predict both acute and chronic toxicity over a wide range of zinc bioavailabilities. The unified BLM, developed by objectively averaging the biotic ligand binding constants for zinc (Zn2+) and competing cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+) from existing BLMs, performed better in predicting toxicity to a diverse set of organisms than any individual existing BLM. Performance of the unified BLM was further improved by optimizing the biotic ligand binding constant for the ZnOH+ species. The updated freshwater zinc toxicity database and unified BLM were then used to estimate the fifth percentiles of the acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions following the U.S. EPA guidelines for AWQC development. © 2012 SETAC. Source

TOPIC: Because of the link between communication impairments and psychiatric disorders, it is important for nurses and other healthcare professionals to know the warning signs for the need for a communication/speech/language evaluation for children during infancy through early childhood. PURPOSE: This article presents an overview of the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs); the expected developmental achievements for youngsters from infancy to age 5 in speech, language, and communication; and the clinically significant warning signs that indicate a need for speech/language assessment. SOURCES: Sources for this article included published literature on the topic along with the clinical judgment and expertise of the author, a certified SLP. CONCLUSIONS: Warning signs for referral to an SLP may be subtle and may present in developmental, academic, behavioral, or social-emotional realms. Collaboration between nurses and communication professionals will allow for early identification and intervention. Early detection of speech and language disabilities is key to maximizing the effects of early intervention, resulting in more positive communication outcomes in later life. It has been found that speech and language delays and disorders, with symptoms left untreated, can cause difficulties in learning and socialization that can last into adolescence and beyond. Early identification of children with developmental delay or developmental disabilities may lead to intervention at a young age when chances for improvement may be best. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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