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Bosserman L.D.,Wilshire Oncology Medical Group Us Oncology | Rajurkar S.P.,Wilshire Oncology Medical Group Us Oncology | Rogers K.,Nashville Oncology Associates | Chernick M.,Lankenau Institute of Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: An observational prospective nonblinded clinical trial was performed to determine the effect of a drug-induced apoptosis assay results on treatments planned by oncologists. METHODS: Purified cancer cells from patient biopsies were placed into the MiCK (Microculture Kinetic) assay, a short-Term culture, which determined the effects of single drugs or combinations of drugs on tumor cell apoptosis. An oncologist received the assay results before finalizing the treatment plan. Use of the MiCK assay was evaluated and correlated with patient outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with successful MiCK assays from breast cancer (n = 16), nonsmall cell lung cancer (n = 6), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 4), and others were evaluated. Four patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after MiCK, and 40 received palliative chemotherapy with a median line of therapy of 2. Oncologists used the MiCK assay to determine chemotherapy (users) in 28 (64%) and did not (nonusers) in 16 patients (36%). In users receiving palliative chemotherapy, complete plus partial response rate was 44%, compared with 6.7% in nonusers (P <.02). The median overall survival was 10.1 months in users versus 4.1 months in nonusers (P =.02). Relapse-free interval was 8.6 months in users versus 4.0 months in nonusers (P <.01). CONCLUSIONS: MiCK assay results are frequently used by oncologists. Outcomes appear to be statistically superior when oncologists use chemotherapy based on MiCK assay results compared with when they do not use the assay results. When available to oncologists, MiCK assay results help to determine patient treatment plans. © 2012 American Cancer Society.

Strickland S.A.,Ingram Medical | Raptis A.,University of Pittsburgh | Hallquist A.,DiaTech Oncology | Rutledge J.,Data Vision | And 5 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2013

Overall survival (OS) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor. Determining prognostic factors will help in selecting patients for appropriate treatments. Our aim was to determine whether the level of drug-induced apoptosis (chemosensitivity) demonstrated by the microculture-kinetic drug-induced apoptosis (MiCK) assay significantly predicted outcomes after standard AML induction therapy. A total of 109 patients with untreated AML had blood and/or bone marrow aspirate samples analyzed for anthracycline-induced apoptosis using the MiCK assay. The amount of apoptosis observed over 48 h was determined and expressed as kinetic units of apoptosis (KU). Complete remission (CR) was significantly higher (72%) in patients with high idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU compared to patients with apoptosis ≤3 KU (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variables to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis and karyotype. Median overall survival of patients with idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU was 16.1 months compared to 4.5 months in patients with apoptosis ≤3 KU (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variable to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis measured by the MiCK assay demonstrated significant correlation with outcomes and appears predictive of complete remission and overall survival for patients receiving standard induction chemotherapy. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Salom E.,South Florida Gynecologic Oncology | Penalver M.,South Florida Gynecologic Oncology | Homesley H.,East Carolina University | Homesley H.,Wake forest University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: This study was performed to determine if a chemotherapy-induced apoptosis assay (MiCK) could predict the best therapy for patients with ovarian cancer.Methods: A prospective, multi-institutional and blinded trial of the assay was conducted in 104 evaluable ovarian cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. The MiCK assay was performed prior to therapy, but treating physicians were not told of the results and selected treatment only on clinical criteria. Outcomes (response, time to relapse, and survival) were compared to the drug-induced apoptosis observed in the assay.Results: Overall survival in primary therapy, chemotherapy naïve patients with Stage III or IV disease was longer if patients received a chemotherapy which was best in the MiCK assay, compared to shorter survival in patients who received a chemotherapy that was not the best. (p < 0.01, hazard ratio HR 0.23). Multivariate model risk ratio showed use of the best chemotherapy in the MiCK assay was the strongest predictor of overall survival (p < 0.01) in stage III or IV patients. Standard therapy with carboplatin plus paclitaxel (C + P) was not the best chemotherapy in the MiCK assay in 44% of patients. If patients received C + P and it was the best chemotherapy in the MiCK assay, they had longer survival than those patients receiving C + P when it was not the best chemotherapy in the assay (p = 0.03). Relapse-free interval in primary therapy patients was longer if patients received the best chemotherapy from the MiCK assay (p = 0.03, HR 0.52). Response rates (CR + PR) were higher if physicians used an active chemotherapy based on the MiCK assay (p = 0.03).Conclusion: The MiCK assay can predict the chemotherapy associated with better outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. This study quantifies outcome benefits on which a prospective randomized trial can be developed. © 2012 Salom et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bosserman L.,Wilshire Oncology Medical Group Us Oncology | Prendergast F.,Mayo Medical School | Herbst R.,Yale Cancer Center | Fleisher M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 17 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

A drug-induced apoptosis assay, termed the microculture-kinetic (MiCK) assay, has been developed. Blinded clinical trials have shown higher response rates and longer survival in groups of patients with acute myelocytic leukemia and epithelial ovarian cancer who have been treated with drugs that show high apoptosis in the MiCK assay. Unblinded clinical trials in multiple tumor types have shown that the assay will be used frequently by clinicians to determine treatment, and when used, results in higher response rates, longer times to relapse, and longer survivals. Model economic analyses suggest possible cost savings in clinical use based on increased generic drug use and single-agent substitution for combination therapies. Two initial studies with drugs in development are promising. The assay may help reduce costs and speed time to drug approval. Correlative studies with molecular biomarkers are planned. This assay may have a role both in personalized clinical therapy and in more efficient drug development. ©2012 AACR.

Bosserman L.,Wilshire Oncology Medical Group Us Oncology | Bosserman L.,City of Hope Medical Group | Rogers K.,Nashville Oncology Associates | Willis C.,Nashville Oncology Associates | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background A drug-induced apoptosis assay has been developed to determine which chemotherapy drugs or regimens can produce higher cell killing in vitro. This study was done to determine if this assay could be performed in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer patients, to characterize the patterns of drug-induced apoptosis, and to evaluate the clinical utility of the assay. A secondary goal was to correlate assay use with clinical outcomes. Methods In a prospective, non-blinded, multi institutional controlled trial, 30 evaluable patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who were treated with chemotherapy had tumor samples submitted for the MiCK drug-induced apoptosis assay. After receiving results within 72 hours after biopsy, physicians could use the test to determine therapy (users), or elect to not use the test (non-users). Results The assay was able to characterize drug-induced apoptosis in tumor specimens from breast cancer patients and identified which drugs or combinations gave highest levels of apoptosis. Patterns of drug activity were also analyzed in triple negative breast cancer. Different drugs from a single class of agents often produced significantly different amounts of apoptosis. Physician frequently (73%) used the assay to help select chemotherapy treatments in patients, Patients whose physicians were users had a higher response (CR+PR) rate compared to non-users (38.1% vs 0%, p = 0.04) and a higher disease control (CR+PR+Stable). Copyright © 2015 Bosserman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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