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New Castle, DE, United States

Wilmington University is a private, non-profit research institution consisting of seven colleges and offers undergraduate and graduate programs in many academic disciplines and professions. The main location is near historic New Castle, Delaware and the city of Wilmington conveniently located in the northeast/mid-Atlantic corridor of the United States. Students are provided access to the major cities of Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and Washington D.C. Wikipedia.

Mendoza R.L.,Wilmington University
International Journal of Healthcare Management | Year: 2014

Introduction: The injury or liability principle articulated by the classic political economist, John Stuart Mill, proscribes state intervention in private choices and actions that do not impose harmful costs on others. This study determines its validity in the context of the Internet model of healthcare business. Specifically, it examines the supply chain, marketing, and (vertical and horizontal) third party effects of online medicines and medical information.Methods: Trending was performed to extract underlying patterns of online production and consumption behavior in a time series. Although Internet pharmaceutical markets are borderless and global, the study delimits the regulatory framework to the United States.Results: Utility-maximizing preferences combine with cognitive tendencies to build and sustain consumer trust and confidence in Internet-based medicines and healthcare services. These provide distinct supply chain, marketing, and networking advantages to rogue pharmacies, while evading traditional regulatory safeguards, at the expense of drug quality, consumer safety, and market integrity. However, public policy interventions in Internet medicine and pharmacies can be costly and burdensome.Conclusion: The study suggests a utilitarian valuation of Mill’s injury principle because it is concerned not only with individual freedom from restraint, but with autonomy to which freedom from government interference is a means rather than an end in itself. The efficiency and multi-polar accountability of policy interventions, rather than their necessity, are major challenges in the context of Mill’s principle. Distinguishing between legitimate and counterfeit medications sold online carries heavy transaction costs, while any actual and potential harms resulting from the Internet trade, and their containment, have significant third party effects.Key messages: Efficient solutions to problems and issues raised by pharmaceutical lemons inevitably entail some form of government intervention, even if market-oriented approaches are pursued. Governments should consider if better attribution of property rights, altering incentives of Internet sellers, and a tort-based system are more efficient than heavy reliance on criminal law. Nonetheless, the study asserts that regulating the public regulators is just as critical as outsourcing regulation, supply chain tracking and data-banking, marketing disincentives, multi-pronged educational initiatives, and intersectoral and intergovernmental collaborations. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

Mendoza R.L.,Wilmington University
Journal of Health, Organisation and Management | Year: 2016

Purpose – Moral hazard is a concept that is central to risk and insurance management. It refers to change in economic behavior when individuals are protected or insured against certain risks and losses whose costs are borne by another party. It asserts that the presence of an insurance contract increases the probability of a claim and the size of a claim. Through the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, this study seeks to examine the validity and relevance of moral hazard in health care reform and determine how welfare losses or inefficiencies could be mitigated. Design/methodology/approach – This study is divided into three sections. The first contrasts conventional moral hazard from an emerging or alternative theory. The second analyzes moral hazard in terms of the evolution, organization, management, and marketing of health insurance in the USA. The third explains why and how salient reform measures under the ACA might induce health care consumption and production in ways that could either promote or restrict personal health and safety as well as social welfare maximization. Findings – Insurance generally induces health care (over) consumption. However, not every additional consumption, with or without adverse selection, can be considered wasteful or risky, even if it might cost insurers more in the short run. Moral hazard can generate welfare and equity gains. These gains might vary depending on which ACA provisions, insured population, covered illnesses, treatments, and services, as well as health outcomes are taken into account, and because of the relative ambiguities surrounding definitions of “health.” Actuarial risk models can nonetheless benefit from incorporating welfare and equity gains into their basic assumptions and estimations. Originality/value – This is the first study which examines the ACA in the context of the new or alternative theory of moral hazard. It suggests that containing inefficient moral hazard, and encouraging its desirable counterpart, are prime challenges in any health care reform initiative, especially as it adapts to the changing demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the insured population and regulatory landscape of health insurance in the USA. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sandal C.,Dow Chemical Company | Sandal C.,Wilmington University
Consultant | Year: 2014

While probiotics remains a big business in the United States and across the world, the use of live "friendly" organisms to decrease bad bacteria in the colon remains in debate. This article reviews how probiotics function in the human gut, provides a synopsis on the current evidence-based research, and gives primary care practitioners an overview of appropriate recommendations for specific probiotic products. Probiotics are live bacteria, primarily found in foods, that produce a health effect in the host.1 The use of probiotics has a lengthy history. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bulgarian peasants were thought to live long and fit lives due to their consumption of fermented milk containing lactic acid bacteria.1,2 During a World War I outbreak of shigellosis, a new strain of Eschericia coli was discovered in the stool of a soldier who was exposed to shigella, but did not develop the diarrheal illness. That strain was later used to treat intestinal infections with success.1 Probiotics are a lucrative business in the United States-43% of Americans purchase these foods and supplements, spending $1.2 billion annually.1 The worldwide demand for probiotic products is expected to exceed $32.6 billion in 2014.3

Mendoza R.L.,Wilmington University
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2015

One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill’s utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d’etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill’s principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Guo G.,West Virginia University | Mu G.,Central University of Costa Rica | Ricanek K.,Wilmington University
Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

Facial aging can degrade the face recognition performance dramatically. Traditional face recognition studies focus on dealing with pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) changes. Considering a large span of age difference, the influence of facial aging could be very significant compared to the PIE variations. How big the aging influence could be? What is the relation between recognition accuracy and age intervals? Can soft biometrics be used to improve the face recognition performance under age variations? In this paper we address all these issues. First, we investigate the face recognition performance degradation with respect to age intervals between the probe and gallery images on a very large database which contains about 55,000 face images of more than 13,000 individuals. Second, we study if soft biometric traits, e.g., race, gender, height, and weight, could be used to improve the cross-age face recognition accuracies, and how useful each of them could be. © 2010 IEEE.

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