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Kofoed V.O.,Willowstick Technologies
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2013

Making accurate groundwater flow models is a critical step in any investigation. Building truly representative groundwater models can be challenging, for even the most experienced hydrogeologist. Building groundwater models is a careful process. It begins with characterizing and incorporating the key elements that affect groundwater movement at a particular site, including soil/rock stratigraphy, the spatial variation and relationships of physical properties, and the hydraulic heads and input/output quantities related to the system. The most common approach to building a representative groundwater model involves input from boreholes and other sampled data. But when this data fails to provide enough information to adequately define a groundwater system, the typical approach is to drill more boreholes to obtain more information. Source


Kofoed V.O.,Willowstick Technologies | Jessop M.L.,Willowstick Technologies | Wallace M.J.,Willowstick Technologies | Qian W.,Willowstick Technologies
Leading Edge (Tulsa, OK) | Year: 2011

Groundwater systems have been notoriously difficult to map with high degrees of accuracy. As a result, not only have traditional geophysical methods proven inaccurate for groundwater characterization work, but they are often costly in terms of time, money, and environmental trauma. This paper describes a unique application of magnetometric resistivity or MMR (Edwards and Nabighian, 1991) for groundwater mapping and modeling, which is high-speed, accurate, minimally invasive, and cost effective. This method has now been deployed at many different sites all over the United States and in other countries like Canada, England, Peru, Sri Lanka, and Argentina. In 2007, the method was employed at 17 dams; some are large well-known structures in the United States. Through two case histories, this paper will assess the effectiveness of this methodology. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source

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