West Midlands, United Kingdom
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Brown G.W.,Grove Referrals | Kalff S.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.,Willows Referral Service | Whitehead M.,Chipping Norton Veterinary Hospital | Mckee W.M.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

A 9.5-month-old, female entire, 31.3 kg crossbred dog was presented with a 12 week history of moderate weight-bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographic, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic imaging revealed progressive avulsion fragmentation of the right tibial tuberosity apophysis and a patellar tendon insertional enthesopathy without physeal involvement. Conservative management was successful in achieving a good clinical outcome. A progressive avulsion of the contralateral proximal tibial physes that occurred concurrently resulted in development of an excessive tibial plateau slope angle. The additional development of a moderate left distal femoral varus deformity was surgically corrected. This is the first report of a progressive, traction injury to the tibial tuberosity apophysis in a dog that appears clinically and radiographically very similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease in humans. © Schattauer 2013.


Renwick A.I.C.,Willows Referral Service | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

This report describes a case of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a two-year-old boxer dog. The dog had been presented with chronic hindlimb lameness and signs of lumbar spinal pain. The diagnosis was confirmed with a magnetic resonance imaging scan and positive blood culture. Following unsuccessful conservative management, the dog was treated with surgical stabilisation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate, and implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge into the L7-S1 disc space. This technique has not previously been described. The dog had a successful long-term outcome with complete resolution of clinical signs. © Schattauer 2010.


Renwick A.,Willows Referral Service | Scurrell E.,CytoPath Ltd.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

This report describes limb-sparing surgery in a 35 kg, six-year-old Hungarian Vizsla with a distal radial lytic bone lesion. Preoperative biopsy had suggested a bone cyst, however histopathology on the excised bone segment was indicative of an osteosarcoma. Following excision of the tumour, the bone defect was filled with a composite bone graft and stabilized with a custom-made dorsal 3.5/2.7 mm pancarpal arthrodesis plate and an orthogonally positioned medial 2.7 mm compression plate. This technique has not previously been described for limb-sparing procedures. No complications were encountered, and despite the owners declining adjunctive chemotherapy, the dog was alive 34 months postoperatively with near normal limb function. © Schattauer 2013.


Wignall J.R.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Baines S.J.,Willows Referral Service
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the effect of cuffpresence and cuffinflation on airway pressure in an inspiratory model of canine tracheostomy. Design: Ex vivo experimental study. Cadaver tracheas from Beagle dogs were attached aborally to a vacuum. Airway pressure and flow rate was measured before and after placement of tracheostomy tubes. Animals: None. Interventions: Adult uncuffed tubes and cuffed tracheostomy tubes (sizes 4, 6, 8, and 10) were placed within tracheas. Cuffs were investigated without inflation and at maximum cuffinflation. Airway pressure was measured at constant airflow rates at 30 and 60 L/min. Measurements and Main Results: At set flow rates, airway pressures of tracheostomy tubes were compared to the intact trachea. A size 4 uncuffed tracheostomy tube showed the lowest airway pressure and a size 4 cuffed trachestomy tube with inflation showed the highest airway pressures. For sizes 6, 8, and 10 tubes, the presence of a cuffwith and without inflation significantly increased airway pressure. Inflation of a cuffalways significantly increased airway pressure. Similar pressure is seen between sizes 4 and 6 uncuffed tubes. Conclusions: Cuffed tracheostomy tubes should not be used unless specifically indicated due to increased airway pressure. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.


McKee W.M.,Willows Referral Service | Pink J.J.,Willows Referral Service | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2016

Objectives: To report the radiographic and clinical outcome of an intervertebral bone cement plug technique for the management of disc-associated cervical spondylopathy in Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Methods: Retrospective study of 52 Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Results: A variable degree of cement plug subsidence with loss of vertebral distraction was evident in all dogs (n = 40) that were radiographed >6 weeks postoperatively. In no case was there definitive evidence of vertebral body fusion. Eight dogs had a sudden deterioration in neurological status, cervical hyperaesthesia, or both between three days and 12 weeks following surgery that was considered to be implant-associated; six of these dogs were euthanatized. Following surgery, 43/52 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved, however, nine of 43 subsequently deteriorated due to adjacent segment disease. At the long-term follow-up, 34 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved. Twenty-nine dogs were dead by the end of the study period. Clinical significance: Intervertebral bone cement plug surgery results in an initial improvement in clinical signs in the majority of Dobermann Pinschers with disc-associated cervical spondylopathy. However, it fails to maintain vertebral distraction or achieve vertebral body fusion, and is associated with acute implant complications, additional cervical disc protrusions or mortality in a significant proportion of cases. © Schattauer 2016.


PubMed | Fitzpatrick Referrals, Grove Referrals and Willows Referral Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary surgery : VS | Year: 2016

To describe the surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis for highly comminuted articular fractures of the distal antebrachium in 8 dogs.Retrospective clinical case series.Eight dogs.Medical records (2001-2014) of dogs with antebrachial fractures were reviewed and dogs with highly comminuted distal antebrachial fractures were identified. The nature of the injury, surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis, outcome, and complications were recorded.Nine fractures occurred in 8 dogs. Seven dogs were ex-racing greyhounds (8 fractures) and of these, 6/7 dogs had fractures of the right thoracic limb. Compared with the hospital population of dogs with antebrachial fractures, greyhounds were over-represented for the antebrachial injury (odds ratio 117, 95% confidence interval 13-1022). Five dogs sustained injury during exertional exercise or with relatively minor trauma. Submitted bone samples (n = 4) showed no evidence of underlying neoplasia. Mean followup was 15.5 months with 11 complications recorded in 7/8 dogs, including 1 catastrophic, 5 major, and 5 minor complications. Pancarpal arthrodesis allowed a full functional outcome in 3 dogs and an acceptable outcome in 3.Comminuted articular fractures of the distal radius and ulna are complex injuries and have a similar presentation to pathologic fractures. Surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis is associated with a high risk of complication and a guarded prognosis for a full functional outcome.


PubMed | Willows Referral Service and University of Nottingham
Type: | Journal: The Journal of small animal practice | Year: 2016

Comparison of intra-operative mesenteric portovenography and computed tomographic angiography for the documentation of the portal vasculature in patients with single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.Retrospective study of patients with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts that underwent preoperative computed tomographic angiography and intra-operative mesenteric portography. Studies were compared for identification of the intra- and extrahepatic portal vasculature.Computed tomographic angiography demonstrated all four portal vein tributaries and sub-tributaries. Intra-operative mesenteric portography inconsistently demonstrated the cranial mesenteric vein, the gastroduodenal vein (12 of 49 dogs and 0 of 10 cats), splenic vein (46 of 49 dogs and 8 of 10 cats) and caudal mesenteric vein (3 of 49 dogs and 2 of 10 cats). Computed tomographic angiography showed the intrahepatic portal vein with shunts emanating from the left gastric vein, splenocaval shunts or shunts involving the left colic vein. It showed intrahepatic portal branching in 5 of 12 patients with shunts involving the right gastric vein. Intra-operative mesenteric portography showed the intrahepatic portal vein in 29 of 59 patients but was outperformed by computed tomographic angiography in all cases except those patients with a shunt involving the right gastric vein.In cases that have undergone diagnostic preoperative computed tomographic angiography there is no indication for diagnostic intra-operative mesenteric portovenography before ligation. In contrast, portovenography performed after temporary full ligation of the shunt provides clinical useful information and might be considered an integral investigation during shunt attenuation surgery.


PubMed | Willows Referral Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of small animal practice | Year: 2016

To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the splenic vein communicating with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts.Ninety-eight dogs and eight cats met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the splenic vein communicating with the prehepatic caudal vena cava plus recorded intra-operative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at surgery. All cases (both dogs and cats) had a highly consistent shunt that involved a distended gastrosplenic vein that communicated with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen via an anomalous left gastric vein.The morphology of the shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through an essentially normal portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the splenic vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.


White R.N.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.T.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.T.,Lane College
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the right gastric vein in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs managed for congenital portosystemic shunt. RESULTS: Twenty-two dogs met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the right gastric vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at the time of surgery. Of these, 20 (91%) had a shunt that entered the pre-hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen and two (9%) had a shunt that entered the post-hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the diaphragm. Shunts entering the pre-hepatic caudal vena cava could be further classified into three consistent subdivisions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The morphology of each shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava, the presence or absence of an abnormal communication between the splenic, left gastric and portal veins and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through essentially normal portal vessels within the portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the right gastric vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


Bowlt K.L.,University of Bristol | Shales C.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

Objective: This case report describes the novel use of an intramedullary pin in an eight-monthold cat to repair malunion of a right transverse ilial fracture that was causing pelvic canal diameter narrowing and constipation. Method: A routine, right femoral head and neck ostectomy was performed due to the presence of a femoral head fracture with apparent femoral neck necrosis. Significant callus formation around the ilial fracture was removed in order to achieve satisfactory fracture reduction. A 2 mm Steinmann pin was passed in a retrograde fashion from the acetabular fracture towards the ischial tuberosity, and following removal of the trochar tip and reduction of the fracture, was driven normograde to end in the cranial ilial wing. The pin was bent at the ischium following cutting in an attempt to prevent cranial migration. Results: Radiographic examination showed good fracture alignment and increased pelvic diameter by 31% The cat regained normal limb function and the constipation resolved. Clinical significance: A transilial pin was utilised successfully in a cat to realign and stabilise a simple transverse ilial fracture following femoral head and neck ostectomy. This technique has the potential to be useful for stabilisation of feline caudal ilial body fractures, but should not be used where there is articular surface involvement unless the coxofemoral joint is not preserved. Further studies are required to assess this technique. © Schattauer 2010.

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