Willows Referral Service

West Midlands, United Kingdom

Willows Referral Service

West Midlands, United Kingdom
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Lederer K.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Ludewig E.,University of Leipzig | Hechinger H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Parry A.T.,Willows Referral Service | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2015

RESULTS: The overall level of agreement between observers about the presence or absence of abnormal CT signs in animals with orbital disease was poor to moderate, but was highest for observations concerning orbital bones (κ = 0.62) and involvement of the posterior segment (κ = 0.52). Significant associations between abnormalities and diagnosis were found for four structures: Abnormalities affecting orbital bones (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) and anterior ocular structures (OR, 1.5) were predictive of neoplasia, while abnormalities affecting extraconal fat (OR, 1.7) and skin (OR, 1.4) were predictive of inflammatory conditions.CONCLUSIONS: Orbital CT is an imaging test with high specificity. Fat stranding, a CT sign not previously emphasized in veterinary medicine, was significantly associated with inflammatory conditions. Low observer agreement probably reflects the limited resolution of CT for small orbital structures.OBJECTIVE: To identify computed tomographic (CT) signs that could be used to differentiate inflammatory from neoplastic orbital conditions in small animals.ANIMAL STUDIED: Fifty-two animals (25 cats, 21 dogs, 4 rabbits, and 2 rodents).PROCEDURE: Case-control study in which CT images of animals with histopathologic diagnosis of inflammatory (n = 11), neoplastic orbital conditions (n = 31), or normal control animals (n = 10) were reviewed independently by five observers without the knowledge of the history or diagnosis. Observers recorded their observations regarding specific anatomical structures within the orbit using an itemized form containing the following characteristics: definitely normal; probably normal; equivocal; probably abnormal; and definitely abnormal. Results were statistically analyzed using Fleiss' kappa and logistic regression analyses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


Oxley B.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2017

Objective: To report the use of computeraided design software for virtual surgical planning and design of three-dimensional printed patient-specific osteotomy and reduction guides for facilitation of bilateral shoulder arthrodesis in a dog. Methods: A three-year-old male entire Pekinese was presented unable to walk due to bilateral severe medial shoulder instability. Computed tomographic data was processed to yield three-dimensional mesh representations of the humeri and scapulae which could be manipulated in computer-aided design software. Key virtual surgical planning steps included joint realignment, osteotomies of the glenoid and humeral head, and reduction. Virtual osteotomy and reduction guides were designed, three-dimensionally printed, and used intra-operatively. Results: Appropriate alignment, reduction and fixation of the humeri and scapulae were achieved bilaterally. The patient regained the ability to walk unassisted after two weeks and was subsequently able to exercise normally without lameness. Clinical significance: Patient-specific, three-dimensional printed osteotomy and reduction guides facilitated accurate bilateral shoulder arthrodeses. © Schattauer 2017.


Brown G.W.,Grove Referrals | Kalff S.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.,Willows Referral Service | Whitehead M.,Chipping Norton Veterinary Hospital | Mckee W.M.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

A 9.5-month-old, female entire, 31.3 kg crossbred dog was presented with a 12 week history of moderate weight-bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographic, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic imaging revealed progressive avulsion fragmentation of the right tibial tuberosity apophysis and a patellar tendon insertional enthesopathy without physeal involvement. Conservative management was successful in achieving a good clinical outcome. A progressive avulsion of the contralateral proximal tibial physes that occurred concurrently resulted in development of an excessive tibial plateau slope angle. The additional development of a moderate left distal femoral varus deformity was surgically corrected. This is the first report of a progressive, traction injury to the tibial tuberosity apophysis in a dog that appears clinically and radiographically very similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease in humans. © Schattauer 2013.


Renwick A.I.C.,Willows Referral Service | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

This report describes a case of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a two-year-old boxer dog. The dog had been presented with chronic hindlimb lameness and signs of lumbar spinal pain. The diagnosis was confirmed with a magnetic resonance imaging scan and positive blood culture. Following unsuccessful conservative management, the dog was treated with surgical stabilisation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate, and implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge into the L7-S1 disc space. This technique has not previously been described. The dog had a successful long-term outcome with complete resolution of clinical signs. © Schattauer 2010.


Renwick A.,Willows Referral Service | Scurrell E.,CytoPath Ltd.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

This report describes limb-sparing surgery in a 35 kg, six-year-old Hungarian Vizsla with a distal radial lytic bone lesion. Preoperative biopsy had suggested a bone cyst, however histopathology on the excised bone segment was indicative of an osteosarcoma. Following excision of the tumour, the bone defect was filled with a composite bone graft and stabilized with a custom-made dorsal 3.5/2.7 mm pancarpal arthrodesis plate and an orthogonally positioned medial 2.7 mm compression plate. This technique has not previously been described for limb-sparing procedures. No complications were encountered, and despite the owners declining adjunctive chemotherapy, the dog was alive 34 months postoperatively with near normal limb function. © Schattauer 2013.


Wignall J.R.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Baines S.J.,Willows Referral Service
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the effect of cuffpresence and cuffinflation on airway pressure in an inspiratory model of canine tracheostomy. Design: Ex vivo experimental study. Cadaver tracheas from Beagle dogs were attached aborally to a vacuum. Airway pressure and flow rate was measured before and after placement of tracheostomy tubes. Animals: None. Interventions: Adult uncuffed tubes and cuffed tracheostomy tubes (sizes 4, 6, 8, and 10) were placed within tracheas. Cuffs were investigated without inflation and at maximum cuffinflation. Airway pressure was measured at constant airflow rates at 30 and 60 L/min. Measurements and Main Results: At set flow rates, airway pressures of tracheostomy tubes were compared to the intact trachea. A size 4 uncuffed tracheostomy tube showed the lowest airway pressure and a size 4 cuffed trachestomy tube with inflation showed the highest airway pressures. For sizes 6, 8, and 10 tubes, the presence of a cuffwith and without inflation significantly increased airway pressure. Inflation of a cuffalways significantly increased airway pressure. Similar pressure is seen between sizes 4 and 6 uncuffed tubes. Conclusions: Cuffed tracheostomy tubes should not be used unless specifically indicated due to increased airway pressure. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.


McKee W.M.,Willows Referral Service | Pink J.J.,Willows Referral Service | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2016

Objectives: To report the radiographic and clinical outcome of an intervertebral bone cement plug technique for the management of disc-associated cervical spondylopathy in Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Methods: Retrospective study of 52 Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Results: A variable degree of cement plug subsidence with loss of vertebral distraction was evident in all dogs (n = 40) that were radiographed >6 weeks postoperatively. In no case was there definitive evidence of vertebral body fusion. Eight dogs had a sudden deterioration in neurological status, cervical hyperaesthesia, or both between three days and 12 weeks following surgery that was considered to be implant-associated; six of these dogs were euthanatized. Following surgery, 43/52 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved, however, nine of 43 subsequently deteriorated due to adjacent segment disease. At the long-term follow-up, 34 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved. Twenty-nine dogs were dead by the end of the study period. Clinical significance: Intervertebral bone cement plug surgery results in an initial improvement in clinical signs in the majority of Dobermann Pinschers with disc-associated cervical spondylopathy. However, it fails to maintain vertebral distraction or achieve vertebral body fusion, and is associated with acute implant complications, additional cervical disc protrusions or mortality in a significant proportion of cases. © Schattauer 2016.


PubMed | Willows Referral Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of small animal practice | Year: 2016

To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the splenic vein communicating with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts.Ninety-eight dogs and eight cats met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the splenic vein communicating with the prehepatic caudal vena cava plus recorded intra-operative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at surgery. All cases (both dogs and cats) had a highly consistent shunt that involved a distended gastrosplenic vein that communicated with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen via an anomalous left gastric vein.The morphology of the shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through an essentially normal portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the splenic vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.


White R.N.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.T.,Willows Referral Service | Parry A.T.,Lane College
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the right gastric vein in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs managed for congenital portosystemic shunt. RESULTS: Twenty-two dogs met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the right gastric vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at the time of surgery. Of these, 20 (91%) had a shunt that entered the pre-hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen and two (9%) had a shunt that entered the post-hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the diaphragm. Shunts entering the pre-hepatic caudal vena cava could be further classified into three consistent subdivisions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The morphology of each shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava, the presence or absence of an abnormal communication between the splenic, left gastric and portal veins and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through essentially normal portal vessels within the portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the right gastric vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


Bowlt K.L.,University of Bristol | Shales C.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

Objective: This case report describes the novel use of an intramedullary pin in an eight-monthold cat to repair malunion of a right transverse ilial fracture that was causing pelvic canal diameter narrowing and constipation. Method: A routine, right femoral head and neck ostectomy was performed due to the presence of a femoral head fracture with apparent femoral neck necrosis. Significant callus formation around the ilial fracture was removed in order to achieve satisfactory fracture reduction. A 2 mm Steinmann pin was passed in a retrograde fashion from the acetabular fracture towards the ischial tuberosity, and following removal of the trochar tip and reduction of the fracture, was driven normograde to end in the cranial ilial wing. The pin was bent at the ischium following cutting in an attempt to prevent cranial migration. Results: Radiographic examination showed good fracture alignment and increased pelvic diameter by 31% The cat regained normal limb function and the constipation resolved. Clinical significance: A transilial pin was utilised successfully in a cat to realign and stabilise a simple transverse ilial fracture following femoral head and neck ostectomy. This technique has the potential to be useful for stabilisation of feline caudal ilial body fractures, but should not be used where there is articular surface involvement unless the coxofemoral joint is not preserved. Further studies are required to assess this technique. © Schattauer 2010.

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