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In a recent review paper, Carroll and Maharshak discussed a critical role of enteric bacterial proteases in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). I take a great interest in this paper as I also suspected proteases, not from the bacteria, but those originated from the pancreas that failed to be inactivated in the lower gut due to a reduction in gut bacteria, may have played a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD, which was first published more than a decade ago and discussed again in more detail in a recent paper published in this journal. Antibiotics may result in a big reduction in gut bacteria and bacterial proteases, but multiple studies demonstrated dramatic increased of pancreatic proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin in the feces of animals or patients treated with antibiotics. Multiple large-scale studies also demonstrated use of antibiotics caused an increase but not decrease in the risk of developing IBD, suggesting impaired inactivation and degradation of pancreatic proteases may have played a more critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Azzari G.,University of California at Irvine | Goulden M.L.,University of California at Irvine | Rusu R.B.,Willow Inc.
Sensors (Switzerland)

The importance of vegetation structure and biomass in controlling land-atmosphere exchange is widely recognized, but measurements of canopy structure are challenging, time consuming, and often rely on destructive methods. The Microsoft Kinect is an infrared sensor designed for video gaming that outputs synchronized color and depth images and that has the potential to allow rapid characterization of vegetation structure. We compared depth images from a Kinect sensor with manual measurements of plant structure and size for two species growing in a California grassland. The depth images agreed well with the horizontal and vertical measurements of plant size made manually. Similarly, the plant volumes calculated with a three-dimensional convex hulls approach was well related to plant biomass. The Kinect showed some limitations for ecological observation associated with a short measurement range and daytime light contamination. Nonetheless, the Kinect's light weight, fast acquisition time, low power requirement, and cost make it a promising tool for rapid field surveys of canopy structure, especially in small-statured vegetation. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Foukal P.,Willow Inc.
Solar Physics

We compare total solar irradiance (TSI) and ultraviolet (Fuv) irradiance variation reconstructed using Ca K facular areas since 1915, with previous values based on less direct proxies. Our annual means for 1925 - 1945 reach values 30 - 50 % higher than those presently used in IPCC climate studies. A high facula/sunspot area ratio in spot cycles 16 and 17 seems to be responsible. New evidence from solar photometry increases the likelihood of greater seventeenth century solar dimming than expected from the disappearance of magnetic active regions alone. But the large additional brightening in the early twentieth century claimed from some recent models requires complete disappearance of the magnetic network. The network is clearly visible in Ca K spectroheliograms obtained since the 1890s, so these models cannot be correct. Changes in photospheric effective temperature invoked in other models would be powerfully damped by the thermal inertia of the convection zone. Thus, there is presently no support for twentieth century irradiance variation besides that arising from active regions. The mid-twentieth century irradiance peak arising from these active regions extends 20 years beyond the early 1940s peak in global temperature. This failure of correlation, together with the low amplitude of TSI variation and the relatively weak effect of Fuv driving on tropospheric temperature, limits the role of solar irradiance variation in twentieth century global warming. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Willow Inc. | Date: 2014-03-13

Devices generate security vectors based on their own attributes. A devices security vectors compose its transformation matrix. The devices securely share copies of their transformation matrices with other devices. A transmitting device adds its unique MAC to packets, encrypts those packets using its own transformation matrix, and transmits those packets. A receiving device uses its copy of the transmitting devices transformation matrix to decrypt the data in a packet, determining whether a MAC extracted from that packet matches the transmitting devices MAC. The receiving device can permit or prevent further processing of the packets data depending on whether the MACs match. Each device can store a copy of a same program that can be used to derive derivative security vectors from existing security vectors. Each device in the network can derive the same set of derivative vectors for any selected other device in the network, thereby evolving the transformation matrices.

Willow Inc. | Date: 2016-02-16

Living room, office and occasional furniture, namely, reading chairs, office chairs, ottomans; storage and organization products, non-metal storage cabinets, shelves for books.

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