Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Willmar, MN, United States

Lancto C.A.,University of Minnesota | Lancto C.A.,1246 University Avenue W | Foster L.K.,University of Minnesota | Kromm M.M.,Jennie O Turkey Store | And 6 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2014

Clostridium septicum and its associated cytolytic α toxin, along with several other clostridial species, has been implicated as the causative agent of gangrenous dermatitis. A recombinant noncytolytic C. septicum α toxin (NCAT) peptide was developed for use as a vaccine and demonstrated to be safe at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. NCAT, used as a purified antigen, partially purified antigen, or in combination with native antigens, was compared to salt-fractionated α toxin combined with denatured C. septicum bacteria (native) in a vaccination trial. Three-day-old poults were placed into one of five groups and received two, 0.2-ml vaccinations 5 wk apart. Subcutaneous challenge with 3.2 × 107 log phase C. septicum resulted in 78% to 95% of the vaccinated birds surviving challenge compared to 48% of sham-injected controls. By ELISA analysis on NCAT-coated plates, birds receiving vaccines containing the recombinant NCAT peptide showed significantly higher blood serum antibody concentrations than did birds receiving vaccines containing native antigens or alum controls. Additionally, high levels of maternally transferred antibodies reactive to NCAT-purified antigens found in the pre-immune sera from naïve 3-day-old poults suggest that the tertiary structure of the NCAT peptide has a high homology to the native protein structure. In conclusion, our study showed that the use of a vaccine comprised of a noncytolytic recombinant α toxin peptide antigen provided clinical protection equal to the use of vaccines formulated with inactivated native proteins at a reduced overall cost. © 2014 American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source


Thachil A.J.,University of Minnesota | McComb B.,Willmar Poultry Company | Kromm M.,Jennie O Turkey Store | Nagaraja K.V.,University of Minnesota
Avian Diseases | Year: 2013

Clostridial dermatitis is an acute disease causing high mortality in turkeys. Both Clostridium septicum and Clostridium perfringens have been isolated from these cases; however, reports from several diagnostic laboratories indicate an increased isolation rate of C. septicum compared with C. perfringens from cases of clostridial dermatitis in recent years. Previous studies suggested C. septicum was more potent than C. perfringens in causing clostridial dermatitis in turkeys. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the use of a C. septicum bacterin-toxoid to control clostridial dermatitis in turkeys. A C. septicum bacterin-toxoid was prepared and was initially tested in 6-wk-old commercial turkeys under laboratory conditions for its safety and efficacy. Subsequently, the bacterin-toxoid was evaluated for use in commercial turkey farms with a consistent history of clostridial dermatitis. Birds in the field were vaccinated subcutaneously once at 6 wk of age with C. septicum bacterin-toxoid, and then mortality in both vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was recorded and compared. Blood samples from birds in both groups were examined using ELISA to detect antibody response to the C. septicum toxoid. The C. septicum bacterin-toxoid was found to be safe and to elicit antibodies against the toxoid. In vaccinated commercial turkeys, control of clostridial dermatitis was achieved via antibiotic use and clostridial dermatitis mortality was significantly reduced compared with that of birds in the unvaccinated group. The C. septicum bacterin-toxoid seems to be a valuable tool for the turkey industry to reduce losses due to clostridial dermatitis. © American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source


Danzeisen J.L.,University of Minnesota | Calvert A.J.,University of Minnesota | Noll S.L.,University of Minnesota | McComb B.,Willmar Poultry Company | And 4 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2013

Because of concerns related to the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, antibioticfree alternatives are greatly needed to prevent disease and promote animal growth. One of the current challenges facing commercial turkey production in Minnesota is difficulty obtaining flock average weights typical of the industry standard, and this condition has been coined "Light Turkey Syndrome" or LTS. This condition has been identified inMinnesota turkey flocks for at least five years, and it has been observed that average flock body weights never approach their genetic potential. However, a single causative agent responsible for these weight reductions has not been identified despite numerous efforts to do so. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community composition within the small intestines of heavy and light turkey flocks using 16S rRNA sequencing, and to identify possible correlations between microbiome and average flock weight. This study also sought to define the temporal succession of bacteria occurring in the turkey ileum. Based upon 2.7 million sequences across nine different turkey flocks, dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and compared between the flocks studied. OTUs that were associated with heavier weight flocks included those with similarity to Candidatus division Arthromitus and Clostridium bartlettii, while these flocks had decreased counts of several Lactobacillus species compared to lighter weight flocks. The core bacterial microbiome succession in commercial turkeys was also defined. Several defining markers of microbiome succession were identified, including the presence or abundance of Candidatus division Arthromitus, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Clostridium bartlettii. Overall, the succession of the ileum bacterial microbiome in commercial turkeys proceeds in a predictable manner. Efforts to prevent disease and promote growth in the absence of antibiotics could involve target dominant bacteria identified in the turkey ileum that are associated with increased weight gain. © 2013 Danzeisen et al. Source


Thachil A.J.,University of Minnesota | McComb B.,Willmar Poultry Company | Early M.M.,Jennie O Turkey Store | Heeder C.,Jennie O Turkey Store | Nagaraja K.V.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2012

Cellulitis has emerged as a major problem in the turkey industry over the last few years. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum are recognized as the causative agents for cellulitis in turkeys. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the use of a bivalent C. perfringens and C. septicum toxoid to control cellulitis in commercial turkeys. A bivalent C. perfringens and C. septicum toxoid was prepared and tested in 6-wk-old commercial turkeys under laboratory conditions for its safety and efficacy. It was then evaluated for its use in 2 commercial turkey farms with a consistent history of cellulitis. The flock consisted of 16,000 birds, of which 8,000 birds were vaccinated and an equal number were kept as unvaccinated controls. The 2 groups were separated by wire mesh. The commercial birds were vaccinated once at 6 wk of age. The mortality in both groups was recorded and compared. Blood samples from birds in both groups were examined to detect the antibody response to C. perfringens and C. septicum toxoid by ELISA. The bivalent toxoid developed was found to be safe and effective. It produced antibodies that appeared protective. With vaccinated commercial turkeys, antibiotic use to control cellulitis was significantly less compared with birds in the unvaccinated group. The use of bivalent C. perfringens and C. septicum toxoid appears to be a valuable tool to reduce losses attributable to cellulitis in the turkey industry. © 2012 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Clark S.,Alpharma LLC | Porter R.,Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | McComb B.,Jennie O Turkey Store | Lippert R.,Willmar Poultry Company | And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Clostridial dermatitis of turkeys (CDT) has emerged as a major issue across most geographic regions of the United States. The prevalence and severity of dermatitis has increased over the last several years, since the time it was first reported in 1993. Cellulitis in poultry can be associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, but the more recent field situation in turkeys is specifically associated with Clostridium spp. The prevalence of cellulitis is relatively low; however, the disease can be devastating in the individual flocks affected. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium sordelli, and S. aureus can cause cellulitis. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and other bacteria have occasionally been isolated from birds diagnosed with cellulitis. CDT appears as excessive mortality in older birds around 1618 weeks of age. It has been reported from field experience as early as 7 wk of age. Clinical signs of CDT can range from sudden death to inappetence, depression, leg weakness, recumbency, and ataxia. The disease is characterized by reddish to dark or greenish discoloration of the skin around the thighs, abdomen, keel, tail region, back, and wings. The lesions can extend into the underlying muscles, and there can be gas bubbles under the skin which result in crepitation. Some cases present with dead birds having "bubbly tail," fluid-filled blisters associated with broken feather follicles around the base of the tail. Bubbly tail in breeder toms might not cause excessive mortality, but the lesions are so severe that the birds cannot be used for semen collection. Incidence of mortality from this condition can be severe and acute (i.e., rapid onset of high mortality). The dead birds decompose very quickly. Microscopically, there is necrosis, with or without inflammation of the skin, especially in the dermis and occasionally in the skeletal muscles, associated with large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. Overcrowding, aggressive birds, poorwet litter, decreased down time, a contaminated environment including feed and water, poor hygienic conditions, and contaminated vaccines and vaccine equipment, etc., can predispose birds for CDT. Preventative measures and treatment are discussed extensively in this review. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source

Discover hidden collaborations