Willink Biochemical Genetics Unit

Manchester, United Kingdom

Willink Biochemical Genetics Unit

Manchester, United Kingdom
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Baroy T.,University of Oslo | Koster J.,University of Amsterdam | Stromme P.,University of Oslo | Ebberink M.S.,University of Amsterdam | And 14 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Import of peroxisomalmatrix proteins, crucial for peroxisome biogenesis, is mediated by the cytosolic receptors PEX5 and PEX7 that recognize proteins carrying peroxisomal targeting signals 1 or 2 (PTS1 or PTS2), respectively. Mutations in PEX5 or 12 other PEX genes cause peroxisome biogenesis disorders, collectively named the Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), whereas mutations in PEX7 cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Three additional RCDP types, RCDP2-3-4, are caused, respectively, by mutations in GNPAT, AGPS and FAR1, encoding enzymes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis. Herewe report a fifth type of RCDP (RCDP5) caused by a novel mutation in PEX5. In four patients with RCDP from two independent families, we identified a homozygous frame shift mutation c.722dupA (p.Val242Glyfs*33) in PEX5 (GenBank: NM_001131023.1). PEX5 encodes two isoforms, PEX5L and PEX5S, and we show that the c.722dupA mutation, located in the PEX5L-specific exon 9, results in loss of PEX5L only. Both PEX5 isoforms recognize PTS1-tagged proteins, but PEX5L is also a co-receptor for PTS2-tagged proteins. Previous patients with PEX5 mutations had ZSD, mainly due to deficient import of PTS1-tagged proteins. Similarly to mutations in PEX7, loss of PEX5L results in deficient import of PTS2-tagged proteins only, thus causing RCDP instead of ZSD. We demonstrate that PEX5L expression restores the import of PTS2-tagged proteins in patient fibroblasts. Due to the biochemical overlap between RCDP1 and RCDP5, sequencing of PEX7 and exon 9 in PEX5 should be performed in patients with a selective defect in the import of PTS2-tagged proteins. © The Author 2015.


PubMed | University of Amsterdam, Willink Biochemical Genetics Unit, University of Oslo and Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust St Lukes Hospital
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2015

Import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, crucial for peroxisome biogenesis, is mediated by the cytosolic receptors PEX5 and PEX7 that recognize proteins carrying peroxisomal targeting signals 1 or 2 (PTS1 or PTS2), respectively. Mutations in PEX5 or 12 other PEX genes cause peroxisome biogenesis disorders, collectively named the Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), whereas mutations in PEX7 cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Three additional RCDP types, RCDP2-3-4, are caused, respectively, by mutations in GNPAT, AGPS and FAR1, encoding enzymes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis. Here we report a fifth type of RCDP (RCDP5) caused by a novel mutation in PEX5. In four patients with RCDP from two independent families, we identified a homozygous frame shift mutation c.722dupA (p.Val242Glyfs()33) in PEX5 (GenBank: NM_001131023.1). PEX5 encodes two isoforms, PEX5L and PEX5S, and we show that the c.722dupA mutation, located in the PEX5L-specific exon 9, results in loss of PEX5L only. Both PEX5 isoforms recognize PTS1-tagged proteins, but PEX5L is also a co-receptor for PTS2-tagged proteins. Previous patients with PEX5 mutations had ZSD, mainly due to deficient import of PTS1-tagged proteins. Similarly to mutations in PEX7, loss of PEX5L results in deficient import of PTS2-tagged proteins only, thus causing RCDP instead of ZSD. We demonstrate that PEX5L expression restores the import of PTS2-tagged proteins in patient fibroblasts. Due to the biochemical overlap between RCDP1 and RCDP5, sequencing of PEX7 and exon 9 in PEX5 should be performed in patients with a selective defect in the import of PTS2-tagged proteins.


Davison J.E.,Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Davison J.E.,University of Birmingham | Davies N.P.,Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Wilson M.,University of Birmingham | And 8 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Propionic acidaemia (PA) results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods. Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results: MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions: The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to replenish a compromised Krebs cycle and that this is a marker of compromised aerobic respiration within brain tissue. Thus there is a need for improved brain protective strategies during acute metabolic decompensations. MRS provides a non-invasive tool for which could be employed to evaluate novel treatments aimed at restoring basal ganglia homeostasis. The results from the liver transplantation sub-group supports the hypothesis that liver transplantation provides systemic metabolic stability by providing a hepatic pool of functional propionyl CoA carboxylase, thus preventing further acute decompensations which are associated with the risk of brain infarction. © 2011 Davison et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Alvarez L.M.,University of Manchester | Jameson E.,Willink Biochemical Genetics Unit | Parry N.R.A.,University of Manchester | Lloyd C.,University of Manchester | Ashworth J.L.,University of Manchester
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Background Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) are rare hereditary disorders of protein metabolism, manifesting early in life with ketoacidosis and encephalopathy and often resulting in chronic complications. Optic neuropathy (ON) has been increasingly recognised in both conditions, mostly through isolated case reports or small cases series. We here report the clinical features and visual outcomes of a case series of paediatric patients with a diagnosis of MMA or PA. Methods Retrospective observational case series. A database of patients attending the Willink Biochemical Genetics unit in Manchester was interrogated. Fifty-three patients had a diagnosis of either isolated MMA or PA, of which 12 had been referred for ophthalmic review. Results Seven patients had clinical findings compatible with ON. Visual outcomes in these patients were poor, with slow clinical progression or stability over time in five cases with follow-up. Presentation was acute in a context of metabolic crisis in two of the cases. Four patients with ON had electrodiagnostics showing absent pattern evoked potentials, with one showing a preserved flash response. All four showed marked attenuation of the dark-adapted electroretinogram with better preservation of the light-adapted response. Conclusions Our study suggests that ON is underreported in patients with MMA and PA. Clinical presentation can be acute or insidious, and episodes of acute metabolic decompensation appear to trigger visual loss. Photoreceptor involvement may coexist. Active clinical surveillance of affected patients is important as comorbidities and cognitive impairment may delay diagnosis.

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