Williams College is a private liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States. It was established in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams. Originally a men's college, Williams became co-educational in 1970. Fraternities were also phased out during this period, beginning in 1962.There are three academic curricular divisions , 24 departments, 36 majors, and two master's degree programs in art history and development economics. There are 334 voting faculty members, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 7:1. As of 2012, the school has an enrollment of 2,052 undergraduate students and 54 graduate students.The academic year follows a 4–1–4 schedule of two four-course semesters plus a one-course "winter study" term in January. A summer research schedule involves about 200 students on campus completing projects with professors.Williams College currently occupies 1st place in U.S. News & World Report 's 2014 ranking of the 266 liberal arts colleges in the United States. Forbes Magazine ranked Williams the best college in the United States in its 2014 publication of America's Top Colleges. Wikipedia.
Strauch F.W.,Williams College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012
An all-resonant method is proposed to control the quantum state of superconducting resonators. This approach uses a tunable artificial atom linearly coupled to resonators, and allows for efficient routes to Fock state synthesis, qudit logic operations, and synthesis of NOON states. This resonant approach is theoretically analyzed, and found to perform significantly better than existing proposals using the same technology. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Geller J.B.,Moss Landing Marine Laboratories |
Darling J.A.,National Exposure Research Laboratory |
Carlton J.T.,Williams College
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2010
The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography. © 2010 by Annual Reviews.
Johnson M.E.,Williams College
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010
Sea level is not static, but liable to fluctuations due to addition or subtraction of water in the world's oceans, as well as changes to the shape and holding capacity of ocean basins. Relative changes in sea level are well supported by the rock record on a regional scale. Whether or not global (eustatic) changes are evident and how frequently they occurred during any given interval of time is a matter of contention among stratigraphers. Opinions have evolved over the last century with arguments based on refinements in biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, radiometric dating, and conceptual advances in sequence stratigraphy derived from technological advances in seismic stratigraphy. The Pulsation Theory of A.W. Grabau (1936) attributed to Paleozoic strata a global history of 11 highstands distributed through a sequence with 21 subdivisions. In 1977, Peter Vail and associates from the Exxon Production Research Company independently interpreted a similar Paleozoic history showing 10 second-order highstands but distributed over 19 subdivisions. Vail's approach was model-based and followed a deductive path, while Grabau's was based on inductive reasoning. Recent refinements in a Paleozoic sea-level curve by Haq and Schutter (2008) are based on the same deductive approach taken by the Vail group, but pinned to patterns in sequence stratigraphy. Drawing on the Silurian System as a Paleozoic sample, the timing, frequency, and magnitude of sea-level highstands deduced by Haq and Schutter are compared with those promulgated by the author from the mid-1980s onward using empirical evidence more in line with Grabau's methodology. Both apply the concept of geographic reference areas, but Haq and Schutter identify 50% more Silurian highstands over an interval lasting 27.7 million. years. Eight out of 10 Silurian highstands identified by this author match or overlap 8 out of 15 highstands recognized by Haq and Schutter. At issue is which, if any, qualify as eustatic signals with respect to current databases for biostratigraphic correlation. Evaluation is based on evidence reviewed from Iowa, New York, Norway, Estonia, and Austria in the paleogeographic context of three independent Silurian continents. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Wilson N.,Williams College
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2012
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions. © 2012.
Strauch F.W.,Williams College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011
We study quantum information processing using superpositions of Fock states in superconducting resonators as quantum d-level systems (qudits). A universal set of single and coupled logic gates is theoretically proposed for resonators coupled by superconducting circuits of Josephson junctions. These gates use experimentally demonstrated interactions and provide an attractive route to quantum information processing using harmonic oscillator modes. © 2011 American Physical Society.