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University City, MO, United States

William Woods University is an American co-educational, independent, private university in Fulton, Missouri with 3,800 students. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in a variety of disciplines in both campus and outreach settings.First known as the Female Orphan School, the institution that is now William Woods University was founded in 1870 in Camden Point, Missouri in response to the needs of female children orphaned during the war.During the late nineteenth century, the institution moved to Fulton, Missouri, and expanded its elementary and secondary programs to accommodate young women who aspired to become teachers. Known briefly at the beginning of the twentieth century as Daughters College, the institution changed its name to William Woods College to honor a major benefactor and began offering a two-year college program. In 1962, anticipating dramatic changes in the role of American women in the labor force, William Woods became a four-year college.Expanding its mission to address the need for graduate and adult-oriented programs, the institution became known as William Woods University in 1993 and began offering graduate degrees and admitting men as well as women into all of its programs.The university was founded 1870 and although independent, has a historical affiliation to the Christian Church .The university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association and is ranked 91st in the Midwest among regional universities, according to the 2011 edition of Best Colleges by U.S. News Media Group. The university offers unique undergraduate programs of study include an internationally recognized equestrian studies program, a four-year American Sign Language interpreting program, the first juvenile justice degree in the state and a criminal justice degree with homeland security emphasis. Graduate level programs are offered through the Graduate and Professional Studies program, which offers graduate degree programs, degree completion programs, and select undergraduate programs at permanent sites in Fulton, Columbia, Jefferson City, Blue Springs and Branson, Missouri as well as temporary sites across Missouri and in Arkansas. All GPS programs use a cohort model, and are designed to offer convenience for working adults and an accelerated format. Its athletics teams are known as the Owls and participate in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics as a member of the American Midwest Conference. Wikipedia.

Ray J.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Keller K.L.,University of Missouri | Keller K.L.,William Woods University | Catena M.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology

Sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough are often found in environments with limiting growth nutrients. Using lactate as the electron donor and carbon source, and sulfate as the electron acceptor, wild type D. vulgaris shows motility on soft agar plates. We evaluated this phenotype with mutants resulting from insertional inactivation of genes potentially related to motility. Our study revealed that the cheA3 (DVU2072) kinase mutant was impaired in the ability to form motility halos. Insertions in two other cheA loci did not exhibit a loss in this phenotype. The cheA3 mutant was also non-motile in capillary assays. Complementation with a plasmid-borne copy of cheA3 restores wild type phenotypes. The cheA3 mutant displayed a flagellum as observed by electron microscopy, grew normally in liquid medium, and was motile in wet mounts. In the growth conditions used, the D. vulgaris ΔfliA mutant (DVU3229) for FliA, predicted to regulate flagella-related genes including cheA3, was defective both in flagellum formation and in forming the motility halos. In contrast, a deletion of the flp gene (DVU2116) encoding a pilin-related protein was similar to wild type. We conclude that wild type D. vulgaris forms motility halos on solid media that are mediated by flagella-related mechanisms via the CheA3 kinase. The conditions under which the CheA1 (DVU1594) and CheA2 (DVU1960) kinase function remain to be explored. © 2014 Ray, Keller, Catena, Juba, Zemla, Rajeev, Knierim, Zane, Robertson, Auer, Wall and Mukhopadhyay. Source

Keller K.L.,University of Missouri | Keller K.L.,Berkeley Networks | Keller K.L.,William Woods University | Rapp-Giles B.J.,University of Missouri | And 7 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

To understand the energy conversion activities of the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, it is necessary to identify the components involved in electron flow. The importance of the abundant type I tetraheme cytochrome c3 (TpIc3) as an electron carrier during sulfate respiration was questioned by the previous isolation of a null mutation in the gene encoding TpIc3, cycA, in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. Whereas respiratory growth of the CycA mutant with lactate and sulfate was little affected, growth with pyruvate and sulfate was significantly impaired. We have explored the phenotype of the CycA mutant through physiological tests and transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Data reported here show that electrons from pyruvate oxidation do not reach adenylyl sulfate reductase, the enzyme catalyzing the first redox reaction during sulfate reduction, in the absence of either CycA or the type I cytochrome c3:menaquinone oxidoreductase transmembrane complex, QrcABCD. In contrast to the wild type, the CycA and QrcA mutants did not grow with H2 or formate and sulfate as the electron acceptor. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the CycA mutant showed that transcripts and enzymes for the pathway from pyruvate to succinate were strongly decreased in the CycA mutant regardless of the growth mode. Neither the CycA nor the QrcA mutant grew on fumarate alone, consistent with the omics results and a redox regulation of gene expression. We conclude that TpIc3 and the Qrc complex are D. alaskensis components essential for the transfer of electrons released in the periplasm to reach the cytoplasmic adenylyl sulfate reductase and present a model that may explain the CycA phenotype through confurcation of electrons. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Ramos A.R.,New University of Lisbon | Grein F.,New University of Lisbon | Grein F.,University of Bonn | Oliveira G.P.,New University of Lisbon | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology

Flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) is an important mechanism for the energy metabolism of anaerobes. A new family of NADH dehydrogenases, the flavin oxidoreductase (FlxABCD, previously called FloxABCD), was proposed to perform FBEB in sulphate-reducing organisms coupled with heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC). We found that the hdrABC-flxABCD gene cluster is widespread among anaerobic bacteria, pointing to a general and important role in their bioenergetics. In this work, we studied FlxABCD of Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough. The hdr-flx genes are part of the same transcriptional unit and are increased in transcription during growth in ethanol-sulfate, and to a less extent during pyruvate fermentation. Two mutant strains were generated: one where expression of the hdr-flx genes was interrupted and another lacking the flxA gene. Both strains were unable to grow with ethanol-sulfate, whereas growth was restored in a flxA-complemented strain. The mutant strains also produced very reduced amounts of ethanol compared with the wild type during pyruvate fermentation. Our results show that in D.vulgaris, the FlxABCD-HdrABC proteins are essential for NADH oxidation during growth on ethanol, probably involving a FBEB mechanism that leads to reduction of ferredoxin and the small protein DsrC, while in fermentation they operate in reverse, reducing NAD+ for ethanol production. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Maynard P.L.,William Woods University | Rohrer J.E.,Mayo Medical School | Fulton L.,Walden University
Journal of Primary Care and Community Health

Background and Objectives: Online university students are a growing population whose health has received minimal attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional Internet survey was to identify risk factors for the health status among online university students. Methods: This online survey collected data from 301 online university students through a large, US-based participant pool and LinkedIn. Health status was measured using 3 elements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL): self-rated overall health (SRH), unhealthy days, and recent activity limitation days. All 3 measures were dichotomized. Results: The odds of poor SRH were higher for people who reported a body mass index in the overweight and obese categories (odds ratio [OR] = 2.99, P < .05) and for those who reported being smokers (OR = 2.52, P = .03). The odds of frequent unhealthy days were lower for those who made more than $35 000 compared with those who reported making less (OR = 0.50, P = .03) and those who exercised 4 or more times a week compared with those who exercised less (OR = 0.28, P < .05). The odds of frequent activity limitation were lower for those who reported an income of more than $35 000 (OR = 0.29, P = .04) and higher for persons who reported belonging to “other” race (OR = 14.75, P = .00). Conclusions: Universities might fruitfully target health promotion programs for online students who are low income, in disadvantaged racial groups, who are overweight, smoke, and who do not exercise. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Garg K.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Pullen N.A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Pullen N.A.,William Woods University | Oskeritzian C.A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 3 more authors.

In this study, we investigated the effect of fiber and pore size of an electrospun scaffold on the polarization of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMΦs) towards regenerative (M2) or inflammatory (M1) phenotypes. BMMΦs were seeded on Polydioxanone (PDO) scaffolds electrospun from varying polymer concentrations (60, 100, and 140 mg/ml). Higher polymer concentrations yielded larger diameter fibers with larger pore sizes and porosity. BMMΦ cultured on these scaffolds showed a correlation between increasing fiber/pore size and increased expression of the M2 marker Arginase 1 (Arg1), along with decreased expression of the M1 marker inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Secretion of the angiogenic cytokines VEGF, TGF-β1 and bFGF was higher among cultures employing larger fiber/pore size scaffolds (140 mg/ml). Using a 3D in vitro angiogenesis bead assay, we have demonstrated that the M2-like profile of BMMΦ induced by the 140 mg/ml is functional. Furthermore, our results show that the pore size of a scaffold is a more critical regulator of the BMMΦ polarization compared to the fiber diameter. The study also shows a potential role for MyD88 in regulating M1 BMMΦ signaling on the large vs. small fiber/pore size PDO scaffold. These data are instructive for the rationale design of implantable prosthetics designed to promote in situ regeneration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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