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Reeves J.M.,University of Ballarat | Bostock H.C.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Ayliffe L.K.,Australian National University | Barrows T.T.,University of Exeter | And 18 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

The tropics are the major source of heat and moisture for the Australasian region. Determining the tropics' response over time to changes in climate forcing mechanisms, such as summer insolation, and the effects of relative sea level on exposed continental shelves during the Last Glacial period, is an ongoing process of re-evaluation. We present a synthesis of climate proxy data from tropical Australasia spanning the last 30,000 years that incorporates deep sea core, coral, speleothem, pollen, charcoal and terrestrial sedimentary records.Today, seasonal variability is governed largely by the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), influencing this region most strongly during the austral summer. However, the position of the ITCZ has varied through time. Towards the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, conditions were far wetter throughout the region, becoming drier first in the south. Universally cooler land and sea-surface temperature (SST) were characteristic of the Last Glacial Maximum, with drier conditions than previously, although episodic wet periods are noted in the fluvial records of northern Australia. The deglacial period saw warming first in the Coral Sea and then the Indonesian seas, with a pause in this trend around the time of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (c. 14.5ka), coincident with the flooding of the Sunda Shelf. Wetter conditions occurred first in Indonesia around 17ka and northern Australia after 14ka. The early Holocene saw a peak in marine SST to the northwest and northeast of Australia. Modern vegetation was first established on Indonesia, then progressively south and eastward to NE Australia. Flores and the Atherton Tablelands show a dry period around 11.6ka, steadily becoming wetter through the early Holocene. The mid-late Holocene was punctuated by millennial-scale variability, associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation; this is evident in the marine, coral, speleothem and pollen records of the region. © 2012. Source


La Fountaine M.F.,Spinal USA | La Fountaine M.F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | La Fountaine M.F.,Seton Hall University | Cirnigliaro C.M.,Spinal USA | And 8 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2015

Background: Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) often have low levels of physical activity, which predispose to increased adiposity and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and, generally, normal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. In spite of the mixed lipoprotein profile, the SCI population has been reported to have an elevated risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may permit a more precise quantification of lipoprotein particle (P) species, enabling a more accurate inference of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the SCI population. Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained on 83 persons with chronic SCI and 62 able-bodied (AB) subjects. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI), triglycerides (TG), and P number and size of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), LDL, and HDL subclasses were determined. AB and SCI subjects were stratified based on HDL-C (i.e., Low <40 and Normal ≥40 mg/dl): AB-Normal (n = 48), AB-Low (n = 14), SCI-Normal (n = 49), and SCI-Low (n = 34). Factorial analyses of variance were performed to identify group differences in lipoprotein measurements. Pearson correlations were performed between the number of P by lipoprotein subclass, size, FPI, and TG. Results: The SCI-Normal group was not significantly different from the AB-Normal group for body composition, FPI, TG or LP-IR and had negligible differences in the lipoprotein P profile, except for fewer number and smaller size of HDL-P. The SCI-Low group had a similar lipoprotein profile to that of the AB-Low group, but with a lipid P composition associated with a heightened atherogenic risk and greater tendency toward insulin resistance by the Lipoprotein-Insulin Resistance (LP-IR) score. In the SCI-Low group, the decreased number and reduced size of lipoprotein P were more prevalent and may be associated with increased waist circumference (i.e., abdominal adiposity), relatively elevated TG values (compared to the other subgroups), and an underlying subclinical state of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Prolonged sitting and restricted physical activity in individuals with SCI had the most profound effect on the HDL-C and its lipoprotein P subclasses, but not on LDL-C, however its P subclasses were also unfavorably affected but not to the same degree. The quantification of lipoprotein P characteristics may be a potent tool for the determination of risk for CVD in persons with SCI. © 2015 La Fountaine et al. Source


Cirnigliaro C.M.,Spinal USA | Lafountaine M.F.,Spinal USA | Lafountaine M.F.,Seton Hall University | Dengel D.R.,University of Minnesota | And 12 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective To determine visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume (VATvol) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in spinal cord injured (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) participants and to explore the relationships between VATvol and routine anthropometric measures. Methods Sixty-three subjects with SCI and 126 healthy male AB controls were stratified as low risk [LR: waist circumference (WC) < 102 cm] and moderate to high risk (MHR: WC ≥ 102 cm) for identification of risk for cardiometabolic disease: AB-LR, SCI-LR, AB-MHR, and SCI-MHR. Anthropometrics and standard body composition measurements by DXA with analysis to derive VATvol were performed. Results Comparison of the four subgroups demonstrated the highest subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SATvol) in the AB-MHR group (P < 0.01), and the highest VATvol in the SCI-MHR group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, when compared to the AB group, participants with SCI had a 27% increase in VATvol for every centimeter increase in WC and a 20% increase in VATvol for every unit increase in BMI. Conclusions Because cutoff values for the routine surrogate measures of adiposity underestimate visceral adiposity in persons with SCI, the risk of adverse metabolic consequences would also be underestimated, which necessitates adjustment of the these cutoff values or, preferably, to perform its direct measurement. © 2015 The Obesity Society. Source


Marshall B.L.,William Patterson University | Roberts K.J.,Columbia University | Donnelly J.W.,Montclair State University | Rutledge I.N.,Drexel University
Journal of Drug Education | Year: 2011

Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422 freshman students was surveyed during their first month at a 4-year public college. Findings indicated that the majority of students (89%) were aware of campus policies, yet of those who were aware, less than half (44%) were accepting of these campus rules and regulations. In addition, the majority (79%) of students drank at social events, despite this behavior being in direct violation of campus alcohol policies. However, those who supported campus rules consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who opposed or had no opinion of the rules. Also, those who supported the rules perceived that their peers and students in general consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who were opposed or had no opinion. This outcome supports the premise established by several theories of behavior change including the theory of planned behavior, which state that behavior is influenced less by knowledge than by attitude and intention. © 2011, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc. Source


Barr R.,Georgetown University | Rovee-Collier C.,Rutgers University | Learmonth A.,William Patterson University
Memory and Cognition | Year: 2011

In two experiments with 6-month-old infants, we found that prior learning of an operant task (remembered for 2 weeks) mediated new learning of a modeling event (remembered for only 1 day) and increased its recall. Infants first learned to associate lever pressing with moving a toy train housed in a large box. One or 2 weeks later, three target actions were modeled on a hand puppet while the train box (a retrieval cue) was in view. Merely retrieving the train memory strengthened it, and simultaneously pairing its retrieved memory with the modeled actions potentiated their learning and recall. When paired 1 week later, deferred imitation increased from 1 day to 4 weeks; when paired 2 weeks later, it increased from 1 day to 6 weeks. The striking parallels between potentiated learning in infants and the prior knowledge effect in adults suggests that the prior knowledge effect originates in early infancy. © Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010. Source

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