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Brampton, Canada

Peirano G.,University of Calgary | Richardson D.,William Osler Health Center | Nigrin J.,Dynacare Kasper Medical Laboratories | McGeer A.,Mount Sinai Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to characterize extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated in 2007 from 11 different Canadian medical centers. Of the 209 ESBLproducing E. coli isolates tested, 148 (71%) produced CTX-M-15, 17 (8%) produced CTX-M-14, 5 (2%) produced CTX-M-3, and 1 produced CTX-M-27. Overall, 96 (46%) of the ESBL producers belonged to clonal complex ST131, with the highest prevalence in Brampton, Calgary, and Winnipeg. ST131 is an important cause of community onset urinary tract infections due to ESBL-producing E. coli across Canada. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Su N.,Jilin University | Marek C.L.,University of Iowa | Ching V.,York University | Grushka M.,University of Florida | Grushka M.,William Osler Health Center
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association | Year: 2011

Patients with xerostomia, or dry mouth, resulting from various causes, are at higher risk for developing caries because of a loss of saliva and its benefits. A loss of saliva increases the acidity of the mouth, which affects many factors that contribute to the development of caries, such as proliferation of acid-producing bacteria, inability to buffer the acid produced by bacteria or from ingested foods, loss of minerals from tooth surfaces and inability to replenish the lost minerals, and loss of lubrication. Currently, a number of new products that can substitute for these functions of saliva or induce production of saliva are available in Canada. Some of these products are reviewed and a protocol for caries prevention in this high-risk population is proposed.

Peirano G.,Calgary Laboratory Services | Pillai D.R.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Pitondo-Silva A.,University of Sao Paulo | Richardson D.,William Osler Health Center | And 2 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2011

After recent hospitalization in India (New Delhi and Mumbai), 2 patients, on their return to Canada, presented with lower urinary tract infections due to multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae that produced New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase and CTX-M-15. The organisms belonged to clones ST147 and ST340, and were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr, as well as for the ccdAB and vagCD addiction systems. The bla NDM plasmid was located on the IncFIIA and IncA/C replicon groups of plasmids. Clones ST147 and ST340 are also responsible for harbouring bla KPC, and it is possible that they played an important role in the intercontinental spread of antimicrobial resistance. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Lovren F.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Pan Y.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Quan A.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Singh K.K.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | And 14 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background-: Adropin is a recently identified protein that has been implicated in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Because vascular function and insulin sensitivity are closely related, we hypothesized that adropin may also exert direct effects on the endothelium. Methods and results-: In vitro cell culture models were partnered with an in vivo murine injury model to determine the potential vascular effects of adropin. Adropin was expressed in human umbilical vein and coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs). Adropin-treated endothelial cells exhibited greater proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation and less permeability and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis. In keeping with a vascular protective effect, adropin stimulated Akt Ser473 and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase Ser1177 phosphorylation. The former was abrogated in the presence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, whereas the latter was attenuated by LY294002 and by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibition with PD98059. Together, these findings suggest that adropin regulates NO bioavailability and events via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways. Adropin markedly upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) transcript and protein levels, and in VEGFR2-silenced endothelial cells, adropin failed to induce phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase, Akt, and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, supporting VEGFR2 as an upstream target of adropin-mediated endothelial NO synthase activation. Last, adropin improved murine limb perfusion and elevated capillary density following induction of hindlimb ischemia. Conclusions-: We report a potential endothelial protective role of adropin that is likely mediated via upregulation of endothelial NO synthase expression through the VEGFR2-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and VEGFR2-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. Adropin represents a novel target to limit diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction in addition to its favorable metabolic profile. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Seeley E.J.,University of California at San Francisco | McAuley D.F.,Queens University of Belfast | Eisner M.,University of California at San Francisco | Miletin M.,William Osler Health Center | And 3 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2011

Background: Multiple studies have identified single variables or composite scores that help risk stratify patients at the time of acute lung injury (ALI) diagnosis. However, few studies have addressed the important question of how changes in pulmonary physiologic variables might predict mortality in patients during the subacute or chronic phases of ALI. We studied pulmonary physiologic variables, including respiratory system compliance, P/F ratio and oxygenation index, in a cohort of patients with ALI who survived more than 6 days of mechanical ventilation to see if changes in these variables were predictive of death and whether they are informative about the pathophysiology of subacute ALI.Methods: Ninety-three patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated for more than 6 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were enrolled at two medical centers in the US, a county hospital and a large academic center. Bivariate analyses were used to identify pulmonary physiologic predictors of death during the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation. Predictors on day 1, day 6 and the changes between day 1 and day 6 were compared in a multivariate logistic regression model.Results: The overall mortality was 35%. In multivariate analysis, the PaO2/FiO2(OR 2.09, p < 0.04) and respiratory system compliance (OR 3.61, p < 0.01) were predictive of death on the 6thday of acute lung injury. In addition, a decrease in respiratory system compliance between days 1 and days 6 (OR 2.14, p < 0.01) was independently associated with mortality.Conclusions: A low respiratory system compliance on day 6 or a decrease in the respiratory system compliance between the 1stand 6thday of mechanical ventilation were associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis of this cohort of patients with ALI. We suggest that decreased respiratory system compliance may identify a subset of patients who have persistent pulmonary edema, atelectasis or the fibroproliferative sequelae of ALI and thus are less likely to survive their hospitalization. © 2011 Seeley et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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