Liberty, MO, United States
Liberty, MO, United States

William Jewell College is a private, four-year liberal arts college of 1,100 undergraduate students located in Liberty, Missouri, U.S. It was founded in 1849 by members of the Missouri Baptist Convention and other civic leaders, including Robert S. James, a Baptist minister and father of the infamous Frank and Jesse James. It was associated with the Missouri Baptist Convention for over 150 years until its separation in 2003 and is now an independent institution. Wikipedia.


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Reynolds R.M.,University of Oregon | Reynolds R.M.,William Jewell College | Phillips P.C.,University of Oregon
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Genetic approaches (e.g. mutation, RNA interference) in model organisms, particularly the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have yielded a wealth of information on cellular processes that can influence lifespan. Although longevity mutants discovered in the lab are instructive of cellular physiology, lab studies might miss important genes that influence health and longevity in the wild. C. elegans has relatively low natural genetic variation and high levels of linkage disequilibrium, and thus is not optimal for studying natural variation in longevity. In contrast, its close relative C. remanei possesses very high levels of molecular genetic variation and low levels of linkage disequilibrium. To determine whether C. remanei may be a good model system for the study of natural genetic variation in aging, we evaluated levels of quantitative genetic variation for longevity and resistance to oxidative, heat and UV stress. Heritability (and the coefficient of additive genetic variation) was high for oxidative and heat stress resistance, low (but significant) for longevity, and essentially zero for UV stress response. Our results suggest that C. remanei may be a powerful system for studying natural genetic variation for longevity and oxidative and heat stress response, as well as an informative model for the study of functional relationships between longevity and stress response. © 2013 Reynolds, Phillips.


Sikkink K.L.,University of Oregon | Reynolds R.M.,University of Oregon | Reynolds R.M.,William Jewell College | Ituarte C.M.,University of Oregon | And 2 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2014

Many organisms can acclimate to new environments through phenotypic plasticity, a complex trait that can be heritable, subject to selection, and evolve. However, the rate and genetic basis of plasticity evolution remain largely unknown. We experimentally evolved outbred populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei under an acute heat shock during early larval development. When raised in a nonstressful environment, ancestral populations were highly sensitive to a 36.8° heat shock and exhibited high mortality. However, initial exposure to a nonlethal high temperature environment resulted in significantly reduced mortality during heat shock (hormesis). Lines selected for heat shock resistance rapidly evolved the capacity to withstand heat shock in the native environment without any initial exposure to high temperatures, and early exposure to high temperatures did not lead to further increases in heat resistance. This loss of plasticity would appear to have resulted from the genetic assimilation of the heat induction response in the noninducing environment. However, analyses of transcriptional variation via RNA-sequencing from the selected populations revealed no global changes in gene regulation correlated with the observed changes in heat stress resistance. Instead, assays of the phenotypic response across a broader range of temperatures revealed that the induced plasticity was not fixed across environments, but rather the threshold for the response was shifted to higher temperatures over evolutionary time. These results demonstrate that apparent genetic assimilation can result from shifting thresholds of induction across environments and that analysis of the broader environmental context is critically important for understanding the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. © 2014 Sikkink et al.


Klawinski P.D.,William Jewell College | Dalton B.,William Jewell College | Dalton B.,Missouri State University | Shiels A.B.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Shiels A.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are common disturbances in many island and coastal forests. There is a lack of understanding of the importance to forest biota of the two major physical aspects that occur simultaneously during a hurricane: canopy disturbance and detritus (debris) deposition onto the ground. Using a replicated factorial design, our study involved experimentally determining the independent and interactive effects of canopy opening and debris additions to the forest floor on densities of coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui). Coquies are the dominant amphibian, and second most common vertebrate species, in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), a montane, tropical rainforest in northeastern Puerto Rico that frequently experiences hurricanes. Frogs were sampled in all twelve 30. ×. 30. m plots at three periods prior to installing treatments (July 2003, January 2004, July 2004), and at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 post-treatment. The degree of canopy opening and amount of debris deposited onto the forest floor by our experimental treatments closely mimicked conditions resulting from Hurricane Hugo, a severe hurricane that passed over the LEF in 1989. Based on findings from past studies involving natural hurricanes in the LEF, we predicted that coqui densities would increase in response to debris additions, and decrease or remain unchanged in response to canopy disturbance. However, we found that debris deposition had no significant effect on coqui density and that the opening of the canopy was the dominant aspect affecting coqui by significantly reducing their densities. We identified several possible explanations for the decreased coqui densities in open-canopy plots, including decreased litter moisture and insect prey, and temporal and spatial scales associated with disturbance that may have influenced coqui behavior. Following natural hurricanes, and in light of our findings from experimental hurricane impacts, we expect that coquies benefit from patches of intact canopy while suffering reduced densities in open-canopy settings. Furthermore, based on our study and other experimental forest studies involving frogs, future forest practices that remove significant canopy should probably be viewed as having an initially (up to 1. year) negative effect on the frog community. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Schafer J.L.,University of Florida | Schafer J.L.,William Jewell College | Mack M.C.,University of Florida
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2014

Resprouting is advantageous for plants in pyrogenic ecosystems because it allows for quick re-acquisition of space after fire. Resprouting species build multiple stems during their lifetime and have an established root system, which may affect growth and biomass allocation and whether resprouts conform to predicted scaling relationships. We measured height, basal diameter, and biomass of stems of five resprouting shrub species in scrubby flatwoods sites in Florida, varying in time after fire (6 w, 1 y, 8-9 y, 20-21 y). Differences among species in size and allocation ratios tended to be greater in recently burned sites. Six weeks after fire, the dominant species, Quercus inopina, had the highest height/diameter and leaf/stem biomass ratios, which may contribute to the ability of this species to persist over fire cycles. The slope of the relationship between stem height and diameter was higher in recently burned sites than 8 to 21 y after fire, whereas the slope of the relationship between stem height and biomass was higher 8 to 21 y after fire than in recently burned sites. Height and biomass of resprouts generally scaled differently with respect to diameter and height than predicted by allometric theory, but biomass of resprouts, on average, scaled with diameter as predicted. Therefore, resprouted stems were taller for a given diameter and accumulated less biomass with height growth. In pyrogenic ecosystems, it may be more advantageous to grow tall, to maximize light capture, than to invest in strength to avoid damage because fire will eventually remove stems. Our results indicated that current allometric theory does not adequately represent scaling of growth and biomass of resprouting shrubs. © 2014, American Midland Naturalist.


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

On a daily basis, Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camps challenge campers in a positive, respectful, and fun-filled summer camp environment, enabling them to build confidence, experience success, and showcase their newfound skills. "Xcelerate offers a variety of camp programs that will get you closer to your goal. We start with the fundamentals and build from there," says Steve Anderson, Founder of Xcelerate Lacrosse. "At the end of the camp our goal is for each camper to walk away with a higher lacrosse IQ, an enhanced skill set, new role models, new friends, and a true love of the game. Our small-group training gives in-depth instruction on offensive, defensive and team strategy." Jay Card - Coach Card has a wealth of experience having been a collegiate player, professional player and as a camp director for Xcelerate over the last 5 years. Coach Card will be directing camp at Auburn University (AL), North Central College (IL), St. Olaf College (MN), UNC Charlotte (NC), Baldwin Wallace University (OH), Vanderbilt University (TN) and Pacific Lutheran University (WA). Malcolm Chase - Coach Chase has a wealth of experience having been a collegiate player & coach, professional player and as a camp director for Xcelerate over the last 12 years. Coach chase will be directing camp in Vail (CO), Oregon State University (OR) and Southwestern University (TX). Dan Coates - Team Captain of the NLL’s Colorado Mammoth, Coates is also a Gold Medal winner for Team Canada in the World Lacrosse Championships. Coach Coates will be directing camp at Northern Kentucky University (KY), University at Buffalo (NY), Baldwin Wallace University (OH) and the University of South Carolina (SC). Jacob DeCola - Coach DeCola came to Albion College in 2009 to begin the varsity lacrosse program. Under his leadership, the Britons have built a Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association champion in just six seasons. Coach DeCola will be directing camp at Albion College (MI). Jesse King - As a professional player in both the MLL and NLL, Coach King has a wealth of experience and is excited to lead the Xcelerate Nike staff in 2017. Coach King will be directing camp at Emory University (GA), Saint Louis University (MO), Oregon State University (OR) and Pacific Lutheran University (WA). Brian Lalley - Coach Lalley has a wealth of experience having been a collegiate player at Ohio State University, a college coach at Canisus College and as a camp director for Xcelerate over the last 3 years. Coach Lalley will be directing camp at Northern Kentucky University (KY), William Jewell College (MO), University at Buffalo (NY), Baldwin Wallace University (OH) and the University of South Carolina (SC). Jason Rife - Coach Rife brings an abundance of coaching experience that features more than 15 years of coaching at the collegiate level. Coach Rife will be directing camp at North Central College (IL) and Vanderbilt University (TN). Unlike tournaments, Xcelerate's summer camp opportunities provide youth and high school lacrosse players a balance of traditional and progressive drills which lead to tangible results. For more information visit http://www.xceleratelacrosse.com or call 1-800-645-3226 Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camps provide players of all positions and skill levels an opportunity to learn from some of the best coaches and players in the game today. Unlike tournaments, Xcelerate's summer camp opportunities provide youth and high school lacrosse players a balance of traditional and progressive drills which lead to tangible results. US Sports Camps (USSC), headquartered in San Rafael, California, is America's largest sports camp network and the licensed operator of Nike Sports Camps. The company has offered summer camps since 1975 with the same mission that defines it today: to shape a lifelong enjoyment of athletics through high quality sports education and skill enhancement.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Xcelerate Lacrosse is offering the first 20 registered campers at each location a free Nike Vapor 2.0 Head. Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camps provide players of all positions and skill levels an opportunity to learn from some of the best coaches and players in the game today. Xcelerate's innovative curriculum and balanced approach to the game has made them the leader in lacrosse instruction throughout the nation. On a daily basis, coaches challenge campers in a positive, respectful, and fun-filled summer camp environment, enabling them to build confidence, experience success, and showcase their newfound skills. At the end of the week, campers walk away from any Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camp with a higher lacrosse IQ, an enhanced skill set, new friends, and a true love of the game. “Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camps provide campers the opportunity to learn from some of the most respected coaches in the nation,” says Steve Anderson, Founder of Xcelerate Lacrosse. “We provide a nice balance of experienced senior staff members, highly skilled professional players, enthusiastic recent college graduates, and current college players. Their coaching credentials are outstanding: All-Pros, All-Americans, Hall of Famers, Coaches of the Year, and All-World players.” Overnight Lacrosse Camp locations include: Auburn, AL (Auburn University); Vail, CO (Vail Mountain Lodge); Atlanta, GA (Emory University); Naperville, IL (North Central College); Highland Heights, KY (Northern Kentucky University); Albion, MI (Albion College); Northfield, MN (St. Olaf College); Liberty, MO (William Jewell College); St. Louis, MO (Saint Louis University); Amherst, NY(University at Buffalo); Charlotte, NC (UNC Charlotte); Cleveland, OH (Baldwin Wallace University); Corvallis, OR (Oregont State); Columbia, SC (Univeristy of South Carolina); Nashville, TN(Vanderbilt University); Georgetown, TX (Southwestern University); Tacoma, WA (Pacific Lutheran University). For additional details or to register online, visit http://www.xceleratelacrosse.com/ or call 1-800-645-3226. Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse Camps provide players of all positions and skill levels an opportunity to learn from some of the best coaches and players in the game today. Unlike tournaments, Xcelerate's summer camp opportunities provide youth and high school lacrosse players a balance of traditional and progressive drills which lead to tangible results. About US Sports Camps, Inc. US Sports Camps (USSC), headquartered in San Rafael, California, is America’s largest sports camp network and the licensed operator of Nike Sports Camps. Over 80,000 kids attended a US Sports Camps program in 2016. The company has offered summer camps since 1975 with the same mission that defines it today: to shape a lifelong enjoyment of athletics through high quality sports education and skill enhancement.


Braitman K.A.,William Jewell College | Chaudhary N.K.,Preusser Research Group Inc. | McCartt A.T.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the association between passenger presence and risk of fatal crash involvement in relation to driver and passenger age and gender, focusing especially on drivers ages 65 and older. Methods: Data on US fatal crashes were obtained for 2002-2009. Using the quasi-induced exposure methodology, logistic regression analysis was used to predict the odds of fatal crash involvement as a function of driver age and gender as well as passenger age and gender. Results: Overall, risk of fatal crash involvement with passengers was 43 percent lower for drivers ages 65-74 and 38 percent lower for drivers 75 and older. Older drivers' risk of fatal crash involvement was lower with almost all combinations of passenger age and gender; there was no reduction in risk with passengers ages 75 and older. Effects were stronger at nonintersection locations than at intersection locations. Conclusion: Older drivers' crash risk is lower with almost every combination of passenger age group and gender. It is unclear whether the presence of passengers lowers older driver crash risk or whether safer drivers tend to ride with passengers. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Price E.S.,University of Kansas | Price E.S.,William Jewell College | Aleksiejew M.,University of Kansas | Johnson C.K.,University of Kansas
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be coupled with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect intramolecular dynamics of proteins on the microsecond time scale. Here we describe application of FRET-FCS to detect fluctuations within the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the Ca2+-signaling protein calmodulin. Intramolecular fluctuations were resolved by global fitting of the two fluorescence autocorrelation functions (green-green and red-red) together with the two cross-correlation functions (green-red and red-green). To match the Förster radius for FRET to the dimensions of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, a near-infrared acceptor fluorophore (Atto 740) was coupled with a green-emitting donor (Alexa Fluor 488). Fluctuations were detected in both domains on the time scale of 30 to 40 μs. In the N-terminal domain, the amplitude of the fluctuations was dependent on occupancy of Ca2+ binding sites. A high amplitude of dynamics in apo-calmodulin (in the absence of Ca2+) was nearly abolished at a high Ca2+ concentration. For the C-terminal domain, the dynamic amplitude changed little with Ca2+ concentration. The Ca2+ dependence of dynamics for the N-terminal domain suggests that the fluctuations detected by FCS in the N-terminal domain are coupled to the opening and closing of the EF-hand Ca2+-binding loops. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Many organisms can acclimate to new environments through phenotypic plasticity, a complex trait that can be heritable, subject to selection, and evolve. However, the rate and genetic basis of plasticity evolution remain largely unknown. We experimentally evolved outbred populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei under an acute heat shock during early larval development. When raised in a nonstressful environment, ancestral populations were highly sensitive to a 36.8° heat shock and exhibited high mortality. However, initial exposure to a nonlethal high temperature environment resulted in significantly reduced mortality during heat shock (hormesis). Lines selected for heat shock resistance rapidly evolved the capacity to withstand heat shock in the native environment without any initial exposure to high temperatures, and early exposure to high temperatures did not lead to further increases in heat resistance. This loss of plasticity would appear to have resulted from the genetic assimilation of the heat induction response in the noninducing environment. However, analyses of transcriptional variation via RNA-sequencing from the selected populations revealed no global changes in gene regulation correlated with the observed changes in heat stress resistance. Instead, assays of the phenotypic response across a broader range of temperatures revealed that the induced plasticity was not fixed across environments, but rather the threshold for the response was shifted to higher temperatures over evolutionary time. These results demonstrate that apparent genetic assimilation can result from shifting thresholds of induction across environments and that analysis of the broader environmental context is critically important for understanding the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Sikkink et al.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 179.56K | Year: 2013

1335739
Bunton

This investigation uses fluorescent probe imaging of the two-dimensional viscosity field during reactive flow, as well as Schlieren imaging, to map how flow instabilities depend on the relative rates of hydrodynamic flow and chemical reactions. The proposed research includes: (1) development of molecular-probe fluorescence imaging technique for in situ monitoring of viscosity applied to a well-characterized miscible and Newtonian glycerol-water system in Hele-Shaw cells; (2) extension of this technique to measure the spatio-temporal evolution of the viscosity field for a chemically-reactive flow system of step-growth polymerization; and (3) investigation of the relative roles of rate of reaction to hydrodynamic flow rate.

Intellectual Merit
When a high-mobility fluid displaces a fluid of lower mobility, the instability known as fingering occurs. If the two fluids are of comparable viscosity, then the mobility is dominated by density differences and buoyancy-driven convection occurs. If the source of the mobility difference is viscosity, then viscous fingering can occur in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. When fluids of differing viscosities and densities are brought together in a gravity field, then the outcome depends on the relative sizes and signs of the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of density and viscosity. This proposal focuses on viscous fingering
(VF) in the absence of a gravity field, i.e., in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. Despite the central importance of the viscosity profile to experimental interpretation and theoretical models of VF, the viscosity field has yet to be measured in situ during flow. Hence, the actual viscosity gradient must be assumed or interpolated based on a given model. This work develops a technique addressing this issue using a viscosity-sensitive fluorescent probe. After gaining the viscosity field driving VF, one desires to control the field and the instability. A set of step-growth polymerization reactions will be used as model systems in horizontal Hele-Shaw cells because both rate of reactivity and viscosity of the reaction product can be controlled by varying the concentration of the initiator or catalyst or the functionality of the monomers. Schlieren imaging will be used to produce a phase diagram of resultant instability versus rate of reaction and hydrodynamic flow rate. Fluorescent-probe imaging of the viscosity field will provide quantitative data that will be related to theoretical models of the viscosity profile.

Broader Impacts
Viscous fingering has been studied extensively in part due to its high impact in oil recovery and in pollution spreading in porous media. A large body of literature exists on experimental studies on one hand and on theoretical investigations that focus on computing the spatio-temporal evolution of viscosity fields. A gap exists however in quantitative comparisons between experiments and theory mainly due to the difficulty of quantitative measurements of the evolution in space and time of the local viscosity. This quantitative in-situ monitoring of 2D viscosity field enabling the tuning of the relative reaction and hydrodynamic time scales will broadly impact the field of hydrodynamic instabilities in porous media and will lead to controlling the instability. Additionally, as an outreach, Physics and Elementary Education students will implement a set of optics and fluids activities for middle school students. These activities will be primarily based on the Optics Discovery Kits prepared by the Optical Society of America but with additional demonstrations and activities drawn from fluid dynamics. Supplies will remain with a middle school science teacher in high-need school (such as an Hispanic urban charter school) to empower this teacher to excite future students.

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