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Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Huzzey J.M.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Mann S.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

The objective was to evaluate the association of peripartum concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostane 11,17-DOA), plasma cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp), as well as two markers of negative energy balance, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), with milk yield and reproductive performance. Blood and fecal samples were collected weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows from wk -3 through wk +1 relative to calving. Pregnancies by 150 days in milk (DIM) and projected 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield based on the 3rd Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day (mean. ±. SD; 102. ±. 17 DIM) were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were used to describe the associations of metabolites with 305ME milk yield. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to describe associations of the same metabolites with risk of conception by 150 DIM. Negative associations with milk yield were found for prepartum Hp in wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving (estimate. ±. SE: 490. ±. 251, 564. ±. 259, and 464. ±. 136. kg lower yield for every increase in Hp concentration by 1. g/L, respectively) as well as with NEFA concentration in wk -2 (estimate. ±. SE: 1465. ±. 541. kg lower milk yield for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1. mEq/L). Postpartum associations of NEFA with milk yield depended on parity; NEFA was associated with an increase in milk yield in primiparous animals only (estimate. ±. SE: 1548. ±. 510. kg increase for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1. mEq/L). An increase in plasma cortisol concentration by 1. μg/dL in wk +1 relative to calving was associated with an increase in milk yield (estimate. ±. SE: 580. ±. 176. kg). Prepartum 11,17-DOA was associated in all three prepartum sampling weeks with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.67-0.97], 0.85 [0.72-0.99], and 0.85 [0.75-0.97] for every increase in concentration by 1. mg/g fecal dry matter (DM) in wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving, respectively). Increased cortisol concentrations in wk -3 and -1 relative to calving were associated with decreased hazard of conception in primiparous animals only (HR [95% CI]: 0.54 [0.32-0.92] and 0.59 [0.35-0.99], respectively. Increases in postpartum metabolites Hp and BHBA had a negative association with hazard of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.70-0.97], 0.74 [0.56-0.98], respectively). Biomarkers of inflammation and stress around calving may be useful to assess opportunities for improved milk yield and reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | Grant R.J.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Overton T.R.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to determine whether overstocking during the dry period could alter physiological parameters in dairy cattle associated with cortisol secretion and energy metabolism. Four groups of 10 late-gestation, nonlactating Holstein cows (6 multiparous cows and 4 heifers per group) were exposed to both a control [1 lying stall/cow and 0.67. m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] and an overstocked (1 stall/2 cows and 0.34. m of FB space/cow) stocking density treatment in a replicated crossover design with 14-d treatment periods. On d 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 of each 14-d treatment period, blood and fecal samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, and fecal cortisol metabolite (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA) concentrations. Glucose and ACTH challenges were conducted on d 13 and 14, respectively, of each treatment period. Dry matter intake per cow was greater during the overstocked period than during the control period (15.9 vs. 14.9 ± 0.5. kg/d). Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations were greater (0.11 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006. mEq/L and 65.3 vs. 64.2 ± 1.1. mg/dL, respectively) and 11,17-DOA concentration tended to be greater (891 vs. 792 ± 86. ng/g of fecal dry matter) during the overstocked period than during the control period. Insulin concentration was the same during the overstocked (29.0 ± 2.1 μIU/mL) and control (31.2 ± 2.1 μIU/mL) periods. Overstocking was associated with slightly slower glucose clearance from circulation as evidenced by a greater area under the curve estimate for the glucose response curves (2,882 vs. 2,657 ± 165. mg/dL × 180. min) but a more attenuated insulin response (insulin area under the curve = 5,258 vs. 6,692 ± 1,104 μIU/mL × 180. min for the overstocked and control periods, respectively). Changes in tissue glucose uptake may be mediated by changes in pancreatic insulin secretion or peripheral tissue responses to insulin. The role of glucocorticoids in mediating these changes in energy metabolism is still unclear because stocking density treatment was not associated with changes in adrenal secretion of cortisol following ACTH stimulation. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Grant R.J.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Overton T.R.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34. m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14. d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2. d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ≥0.6), medium success (0.4 ≤ CInd <0.6), and low success (LS: CInd <0.4). Heifers accounted for 7, 36, and 79% of the total number of animals in the HS (n = 15), medium success (n = 11), and LS (n = 14) groups, respectively. No differences were observed in daily feeding time, total number of displacements, and time to approach the FB following fresh feed delivery between the 3 CInd groups; however, cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 μIU/mL greater than the peak HS response, indicating that LS cows may have decreased tissue responses to insulin or increased pancreatic responses to glucose. In an overstocked environment, dairy cattle physiology is associated with a cow's level of success at displacing other individuals at the feed bunk. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | Grant R.J.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Overton T.R.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The association between negative energy balance and health has led to the testing of blood analytes such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) to identify opportunities for improving the management of transition dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prepartum analytes associated with stress (cortisol) or inflammation (haptoglobin) could also identify dairy cattle at increased risk for health complications after calving. Prepartum blood and fecal samples were collected once weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows on 2 commercial dairy farms (at wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving) and analyzed for concentrations of NEFA, haptoglobin (Hp), and cortisol in plasma and cortisol metabolites in feces. Retained placenta (RP), displaced abomasum (DA), subclinical ketosis (SCK), high Hp concentration (HiHp), and death were recorded up to 30 d in milk (DIM), and animals were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) no disorder of interest (NDI); (2) one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHp); or (3) more than one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, HiHp) or death. With the exception of prepartum NEFA, no associations were detected between prepartum concentrations of our analytes of interest and the occurrence of one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHP) by 30 DIM. Haptoglobin concentration tended to be greater during wk -2 and -1 in cows that developed more than one disorder or that died by 30 DIM; however, when calving assistance was included as a covariate in the analysis prepartum, Hp was no longer a significant risk factor for this postpartum health outcome. Primiparous cows with plasma cortisol concentrations >22.2. nmol/L during wk -2 had reduced odds [odds ratio (OR) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.98] of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM, whereas multiparous cows with plasma cortisol >34.1. nmol/L during wk -2 tended to have greater odds (OR 2.53; 95% CI 0.87-7.37) of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM. Individual variation in daily cortisol secretion patterns and stress responses to the restraint and handling associated with sample collection make prepartum plasma cortisol data and its relationship to postpartum health difficult to interpret. Among multiparous cows, for every 500-unit (ng/g of fecal dry matter) increase in fecal cortisol metabolite concentration during wk -2, cows had increased odds (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12-1.79) of developing more than one disorder or dying after calving. For multiparous cows, every 0.15. mmol/L increase in plasma NEFA concentration during any of the 3 wk before calving was associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the odds of developing more than one disorder or dying by 30 DIM. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentration during the prepartum period did not predict which cows would go on to develop more than one disorder or die within 30 DIM as accurately as prepartum NEFA concentration; therefore, this analyte is not a suitable substitute for NEFA for assessing opportunities to improve herd health. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

PubMed | University of Tennessee at Knoxville and William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The study objectives were to determine the effect of short-term increases in stocking density and milking on meal duration, meal frequency, and time between meals and to determine the bioequivalence of different meal criterions in a competitive environment. Forty-eight Holstein dairy cows were allotted to 1 of 4 groups (n=12 per group). Stocking density treatments of 100 (one cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142% were assigned to groups using a 44 Latin square with treatments imposed for 14-d periods. On d 11 of each period, feeding time was recorded for 24h using 10-min scan samples from direct observation. Meals were defined as repeated observations of eating with a maximum of 20, 30, or 40min of not eating between observations constituting the same meal. A new meal was established when a cow was observed feeding and then not feeding for greater than 2 (20min), 3 (30min), or 4 (40min) observations. To evaluate diurnal effects, the 24-h period of data was divided into 8-h intervals (based on milking time); morning (0400-1200h), afternoon (1200-2000h), and night (2000-0400h). Feed delivery occurred daily at 0430h, with feed pushed up throughout the day. A mixed linear model was used to determine the effect of stocking density and time of day on meals per day, meals per hour, meal duration, time between meals, and meal duration 2h before and after milking. Regardless of stocking density, meal duration, meal frequency, meals per hour, and time between meals did not differ. Regardless of stocking density, mean meal duration was longer during the morning and afternoon compared with night. Meal duration was also greater after milking compared with before milking, regardless of stocking density. These results suggest meal length decreased throughout the day, relative to feed delivery, with periodic increases in length due to return from milking. Meals per hour, meal duration before and after milking, and meal frequency established bioequivalence for the 20-, 30-, and 40-min meal criteria. Bioequivalence was not met for meal duration when the meal criterion was increased from 20 to 40min. Short-term increases in stocking density of 14-d duration did not affect the feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows, indicating that mid-lactation dairy cows can compensate for reduced feed bunk access during short-term overstocking. When calculating feeding behaviors, including meal frequency and time between meals, using a meal criterion of 20, 30, or 40min resulted in similar outcomes when using 10-min scan samples. Future studies should investigate changes in other behaviors, such as resting, which may be altered to compensate for reduced access to the feed bunk.

Cook K.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Flis S.A.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ballard C.S.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: To evaluate the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Myco. paratuberculosis), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (Salm. Typhimurium) and a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolate under the low pH and high organic acid (OA) conditions of ensiling of forages. Methods and Results: Decay rates and the time required to obtain a 90% reduction in cell concentration were calculated following (i) exposure to buffered OA (pH 4·0, 5·0, 6·0 or 7·0) (ii) exposure to silage exudates and (iii) survival through ensiling of forage materials. Salm. Typhimurium had higher decay rates in silage exudates (-0·5601 day-1) than did E. coli (-0·1265 day-1), but both exhibited lower decay rates in silage than in OA or silage exudates. Myco. paratuberculosis showed no decrease in silage and decay rates in silage exudates were significantly lower (2-12 times) than for the other two organisms. Conclusions: Escherichia coli, Salm. Typhimurium and Myco. paratuberculosis exhibit marked differences in response to acidity. All three organisms show acid resistance, but Myco. paratuberculosis in particular, if present in manure and applied to forage grasses, may survive the low pH and high OA of the ensilaging process; silage may therefore be a potential route of infection if ingested by a susceptible animal. Significance and Impact of Study: This information contributes to the understanding of potential risks associated with silage preservation and contamination of livestock feed with manure-borne pathogens. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

PubMed | William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute and Ajinomoto Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Two independent studies were conducted to determine whether mechanical mixing of total mixed ration (TMR) or TMR dry matter alters Lys release from 6 rumen-protected Lys (RPL) products (A, B, C, D, E, and F). In the first study, routine mixing procedures were simulated to determine if inclusion of RPL products in TMR altered in situ release of Lys. Following mixing, Dacron bags containing RPL products were ruminally incubated for 0, 6, 12, or 24 h to determine Lys release. The second study occurred independently of the first, in which Lys release from RPL products was evaluated when incorporated into a TMR that differed in dry matter (DM) content. Bags containing TMR and RPL product mixture were stored at room temperature for 0, 6, 18, and 24 h to simulate RPL product exposure to TMR when mixed and delivered once per day. Concentration of free Lys in both studies was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Following mechanical mixing, ruminal Lys release was significantly greater for C and tended to increase for F. Mechanical mixing did not alter ruminal Lys release from other RPL products evaluated. Hours of ruminal incubation significantly altered Lys release for all products evaluated, and a significant interaction of mechanical mixing and hours of ruminal incubation was observed for A and C. Exposure to lower TMR DM (40.5 versus 51.8%) significantly increased Lys release from B but did not alter Lys release from the other RPL products evaluated. Moreover, time of exposure to TMR significantly increased Lys release from all RPL products evaluated, and a significant interaction of TMR DM and time of exposure to TMR was observed for B and E. These data suggest mechanical mixing and variation in TMR DM may compromise the rumen protection of RPL products; therefore, on-farm feeding practices may alter efficacy of RPL products in dairy rations.

Krawczel P.D.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Krawczel P.D.,University of Vermont | Klaiber L.B.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Butzler R.E.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Reduced access to resources because of increased stocking density may have a detrimental effect on the behavior of the lactating dairy cow. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term responses in behavior, productivity, fecal cortisol metabolites, and udder and leg hygiene of lactating Holstein dairy cows housed at stocking densities of 100 (1 cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142%. Multiparous cows (n = 92) and primiparous cows (n = 44) were assigned to 1 of 4 pens (34 cows per pen) in a 4-row freestall barn. Pens were balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk. Stocking densities were imposed for 14. d using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Time spent feeding and time spent ruminating were quantified by 24. h of direct observation of focal cows (n = 12 per pen) beginning at 0800. h on d 11 of each period. Data loggers recorded lying behavior (time and bouts) from the same focal cows per pen at 1-min intervals during the final 5. d of each period. Fecal cortisol metabolites were quantified from samples collected on d 13 and 14 of each period from the same focal cows. Displacements from the feed barrier were recorded on a pen basis after 9 milkings over the last 4. d of each period. Productivity was assessed on a pen basis from milk yield (recorded from d 10 to 14 of each period) and milk components (quantified from composite samples collected on d 12 of each period). Milk composition was further analyzed for milk fatty acid profiles, which were determined from a subset (n = 6 per pen) of the focal cows. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, with the pen (n = 4 per treatment, except displacements where n = 3 per treatment) as the experimental unit. Feeding and ruminating (h/d) did not differ among treatments. Lying time was reduced at stocking densities of 131 and 142%, relative to 100 or 113%. Lying bouts were not affected by treatment. Stocking densities of 131 and 142% reduced the percentage of time cows spent ruminating within a freestall relative to 100%. Displacements from the feed bunk increased linearly across treatments. Fecal cortisol metabolites, udder hygiene score, milk yields, milk composition, and milk fatty acids did not differ among treatments. Decreased lying time and increased aggression at the feed bunk suggest that an alteration of the time budgets of lactating dairy cows may occur at higher stocking densities, but it is unclear at what point these changes might have further biological consequences. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Young E.O.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ross D.S.,University of Vermont
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2016

Riparian buffers can act as a phosphorus (P) source under active stream bank erosion. Using soil and landscape variables (soil series, drainage class, organic matter, and pH) to index P concentrations could improve P loss risk tools for buffers. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if soil properties could predict total and labile P concentrations within a 10-ha riparian buffer and (ii) to quantify the degree of spatial dependence of P and related properties. Soil samples were taken in 15-cm increments to a depth of 60 cm using a grid (n = 71) from an established riparian buffer along the Rock River in Vermont. Total soil P (TP), plant-available P determined by Modified Morgan extraction (MM-P), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), soil texture, and select cations were measured. We found that TP (152-1536 mg P kg-1) and MM-P (0.4-14.6 mg kg-1) ranged widely, with distinct differences between soil series. Mean TP and MM-P were greater in alluvial and glaciolacustrine soils compared with glacial till. Across all samples, MM-P was weakly related to soil properties; however, total labile P (orthophosphate + organic P measured by ICP) and unreactive labile P (ICP-P - colorimetric-P) could both be predicted by SOM (R2 = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). Strong spatial dependence was found for P and related properties as revealed by geospatial analyses. Results show that P availability in the buffer was strongly related to soil genesis and support sitespecific approaches for P loss risk evaluation in buffers. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

Young E.O.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ross D.S.,University of Vermont | Cade-Menun B.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liu C.W.,Stanford University
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2013

In the Lake Champlain Basin, phosphorus (P) loading from streambank erosion and cropland are both important P sources, and a better understanding of the factors affecting riparian P loss is needed to help prioritize riparian restoration efforts. We utilized solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and an enzyme hydrolysis method to characterize P and assess bioavailability in 14 commonly mapped riparian soils from northwestern Vermont. Surface horizons were sampled from distinct series at two riparian restoration sites to capture a range of soil properties. Samples were extracted with sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) and analyzed by solution 31P NMR to speciate and quantify P compounds, and commercially available phosphatase enzymes were used to fractionate water-extractable molybdate unreactive P (MUP) into labile orthophosphate monoesters and orthophosphate diesters. Phosphorus extracted by NaOH-EDTA ranged from 74 to 510 mg P kg-1 (representing 14.2 to 31.9% of total soil P), of which 58 ± 13% was identified as organic P. Phosphorus compounds identified in all samples included myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (myo-IHP), scyllo-IHP, neo-IHP, chir-IHP, glycerophosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, mononucleotides, choline phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, DNA, pyrophosphate, and ortho-phosphate. Orthophosphate monoesters accounted for 53.7 ± 12.3% of total NaOH-EDTA extractable P and 93 ± 3% of the NaOH-EDTA organic P, indicating the importance of organic P in these soils. Stereoisomers of IHP accounted for 29 ± 7% of NaOH-EDTA extractable Po. For the water extractions, 78 ± 13% of total P was MUP, of which 18 ± 6% was labile orthophosphate monoesters and 31 ± 15% was orthophosphate diesters. Results suggest that analytical indices of riparian P loss potential should consider both organic and inorganic P. © Soil Science Society of America, All rights reserved.

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