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King William, NY, United States

Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Huzzey J.M.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Mann S.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine

The objective was to evaluate the association of peripartum concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostane 11,17-DOA), plasma cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp), as well as two markers of negative energy balance, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), with milk yield and reproductive performance. Blood and fecal samples were collected weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows from wk -3 through wk +1 relative to calving. Pregnancies by 150 days in milk (DIM) and projected 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield based on the 3rd Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day (mean. ±. SD; 102. ±. 17 DIM) were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were used to describe the associations of metabolites with 305ME milk yield. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to describe associations of the same metabolites with risk of conception by 150 DIM. Negative associations with milk yield were found for prepartum Hp in wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving (estimate. ±. SE: 490. ±. 251, 564. ±. 259, and 464. ±. 136. kg lower yield for every increase in Hp concentration by 1. g/L, respectively) as well as with NEFA concentration in wk -2 (estimate. ±. SE: 1465. ±. 541. kg lower milk yield for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1. mEq/L). Postpartum associations of NEFA with milk yield depended on parity; NEFA was associated with an increase in milk yield in primiparous animals only (estimate. ±. SE: 1548. ±. 510. kg increase for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1. mEq/L). An increase in plasma cortisol concentration by 1. μg/dL in wk +1 relative to calving was associated with an increase in milk yield (estimate. ±. SE: 580. ±. 176. kg). Prepartum 11,17-DOA was associated in all three prepartum sampling weeks with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.67-0.97], 0.85 [0.72-0.99], and 0.85 [0.75-0.97] for every increase in concentration by 1. mg/g fecal dry matter (DM) in wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving, respectively). Increased cortisol concentrations in wk -3 and -1 relative to calving were associated with decreased hazard of conception in primiparous animals only (HR [95% CI]: 0.54 [0.32-0.92] and 0.59 [0.35-0.99], respectively. Increases in postpartum metabolites Hp and BHBA had a negative association with hazard of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.70-0.97], 0.74 [0.56-0.98], respectively). Biomarkers of inflammation and stress around calving may be useful to assess opportunities for improved milk yield and reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Young E.O.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ross D.S.,University of Vermont
Journal of Environmental Quality

Riparian buffers can act as a phosphorus (P) source under active stream bank erosion. Using soil and landscape variables (soil series, drainage class, organic matter, and pH) to index P concentrations could improve P loss risk tools for buffers. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if soil properties could predict total and labile P concentrations within a 10-ha riparian buffer and (ii) to quantify the degree of spatial dependence of P and related properties. Soil samples were taken in 15-cm increments to a depth of 60 cm using a grid (n = 71) from an established riparian buffer along the Rock River in Vermont. Total soil P (TP), plant-available P determined by Modified Morgan extraction (MM-P), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), soil texture, and select cations were measured. We found that TP (152-1536 mg P kg-1) and MM-P (0.4-14.6 mg kg-1) ranged widely, with distinct differences between soil series. Mean TP and MM-P were greater in alluvial and glaciolacustrine soils compared with glacial till. Across all samples, MM-P was weakly related to soil properties; however, total labile P (orthophosphate + organic P measured by ICP) and unreactive labile P (ICP-P - colorimetric-P) could both be predicted by SOM (R2 = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). Strong spatial dependence was found for P and related properties as revealed by geospatial analyses. Results show that P availability in the buffer was strongly related to soil genesis and support sitespecific approaches for P loss risk evaluation in buffers. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. Source

Young E.O.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ross D.S.,University of Vermont | Alves C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Villars T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation

The ability to rank riparian soils by native phosphorus (P) concentration could help prioritize riparian management practices aimed at reducing P loading from streambank erosion. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between riparian soil variability and native P availability in three riparian corridors in northwestern Vermont. In the first study, two sites along tributaries of Lake Champlain were remapped at a high resolution (1:5000) by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in 2006. After the remapping, multiple profile samples were taken from each series and were analyzed for total P (TP) and Modified Morgan extractable P. In a second study, 27 soil characterization pedons were sampled along three riparian corridors (Lewis Creek, Rugg Brook, and Rock River) to capture a broader range of parent material and P content. These samples were analyzed for particle size separates (sand, silt, and clay content), TP, and oxalate extractable P. Results showed a strong relationship between soil series variation (e.g., texture and drainage differences) and native P concentration. The first study revealed that both Modified Morgan extractable P and TP were lower in the coarser-textured, well drained soil series compared to the finer-textured soils. In the second study, native P concentrations (TP and oxalate extractable P) were also significantly greater in the finer-textured soils. The ratio of oxalate extractable P to TP decreased strongly with increasing sand content (r2 = 0.69), indicating that the finer-textured soils had a greater fraction of potentially desorbable P. Texture was a good indicator of native P concentrations across a wide range of soil properties, suggesting that accurate soil maps will be an important tool for indexing the native P status along riparian corridors in the Lake Champlain Basin region. © 2012 Soil and Water Conservation Society. Source

Huzzey J.M.,Cornell University | Grant R.J.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Overton T.R.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science

The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34. m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14. d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2. d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ≥0.6), medium success (0.4 ≤ CInd <0.6), and low success (LS: CInd <0.4). Heifers accounted for 7, 36, and 79% of the total number of animals in the HS (n = 15), medium success (n = 11), and LS (n = 14) groups, respectively. No differences were observed in daily feeding time, total number of displacements, and time to approach the FB following fresh feed delivery between the 3 CInd groups; however, cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 μIU/mL greater than the peak HS response, indicating that LS cows may have decreased tissue responses to insulin or increased pancreatic responses to glucose. In an overstocked environment, dairy cattle physiology is associated with a cow's level of success at displacing other individuals at the feed bunk. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Young E.O.,William H Miner Agricultural Research Institute | Ross D.S.,University of Vermont | Cade-Menun B.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liu C.W.,Stanford University
Soil Science Society of America Journal

In the Lake Champlain Basin, phosphorus (P) loading from streambank erosion and cropland are both important P sources, and a better understanding of the factors affecting riparian P loss is needed to help prioritize riparian restoration efforts. We utilized solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and an enzyme hydrolysis method to characterize P and assess bioavailability in 14 commonly mapped riparian soils from northwestern Vermont. Surface horizons were sampled from distinct series at two riparian restoration sites to capture a range of soil properties. Samples were extracted with sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) and analyzed by solution 31P NMR to speciate and quantify P compounds, and commercially available phosphatase enzymes were used to fractionate water-extractable molybdate unreactive P (MUP) into labile orthophosphate monoesters and orthophosphate diesters. Phosphorus extracted by NaOH-EDTA ranged from 74 to 510 mg P kg-1 (representing 14.2 to 31.9% of total soil P), of which 58 ± 13% was identified as organic P. Phosphorus compounds identified in all samples included myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (myo-IHP), scyllo-IHP, neo-IHP, chir-IHP, glycerophosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, mononucleotides, choline phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, DNA, pyrophosphate, and ortho-phosphate. Orthophosphate monoesters accounted for 53.7 ± 12.3% of total NaOH-EDTA extractable P and 93 ± 3% of the NaOH-EDTA organic P, indicating the importance of organic P in these soils. Stereoisomers of IHP accounted for 29 ± 7% of NaOH-EDTA extractable Po. For the water extractions, 78 ± 13% of total P was MUP, of which 18 ± 6% was labile orthophosphate monoesters and 31 ± 15% was orthophosphate diesters. Results suggest that analytical indices of riparian P loss potential should consider both organic and inorganic P. © Soil Science Society of America, All rights reserved. Source

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