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Eikelboom J.W.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Wallentin L.,Uppsala University | Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Ezekowitz M.,Lankenau Institute for Medical Research | And 12 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

Background-: Dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice a day and warfarin are effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to compare their risks of bleeding in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Methods and results-: The RE-LY trial randomized 18 113 patients to receive dabigatran 110 or 150 mg twice a day or warfarin dose adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for a median follow-up of 2.0 years. Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg twice a day was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (2.87% versus 3.57%; P=0.002), whereas dabigatran 150 mg twice a day was associated with a similar risk of major bleeding (3.31% versus 3.57%; P=0.32). There was a significant treatment-by-age interaction, such that dabigatran 110 mg twice a day compared with warfarin was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding in patients aged <75 years (1.89% versus 3.04%; P<0.001) and a similar risk in those aged 75 years (4.43% versus 4.37%; P=0.89; P for interaction <0.001), whereas dabigatran 150 mg twice a day compared with warfarin was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding in those aged <75 years (2.12% versus 3.04%; P<0.001) and a trend toward higher risk of major bleeding in those aged 75 years (5.10% versus 4.37%; P=0.07; P for interaction <0.001). The interaction with age was evident for extracranial bleeding, but not for intracranial bleeding, with the risk of the latter being consistently reduced with dabigatran compared with warfarin irrespective of age. Conclusions-: In patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke, both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin have lower risks of both intracranial and extracranial bleeding in patients aged <75 years. In those aged 75 years, intracranial bleeding risk is lower but extracranial bleeding risk is similar or higher with both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Siller-Matula J.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Christ G.,Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital | Lang I.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Delle-Karth G.,Medical University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2010

Background and Aim: The prognostic value of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) for thrombotic adverse events has been shown in independent studies. As no direct comparison between the two methods has been made so far, we investigated which laboratory approach has a better predictive value for stent thrombosis. Methods: The VASP phosphorylation assay and MEA were performed in 416 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The rate of stent thrombosis was recorded during a 6-month follow-up. Results: Definite stent thrombosis occurred in three patients (0.7%) and probable stent thrombosis in four (1%). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that MEA distinguishes between patients with or without subsequent stent thrombosis better than the VASP phosphorylation assay: the area under the ROC curve was higher for MEA (0.92; P = 0.012) than for the VASP phosphorylation assay (0.60; P = 0.55). At equal levels of sensitivity (100%), the specificity was greater for MEA than for the VASP phosphorylation assay (86% vs. 37%). Stent thrombosis occurred in 9% of patients with platelet hyperreactivity in MEA, who were simultaneously clopidogrel non-responders in the VASP phosphorylation assay. Interestingly, clopidogrel non-responders in the VASP phosphorylation assay without platelet hyperreactivity in MEA did not suffer from stent thrombosis. Conclusions: Platelet hyperreactivity in MEA might be a better risk predictor for stent thrombosis than the assessment of the specific clopidogrel effect with the VASP phosphorylation assay. © 2009 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Speidl W.S.,Medical University of Vienna | Katsaros K.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Kastl S.P.,Medical University of Vienna | Zorn G.,Medical University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Objective: Drug eluting stents (DES) reduce recurrent luminal narrowing through anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects. However, recent concerns arose that DES may also induce significant chronic inflammatory responses that may impair vascular healing and lead to in-stent restenosis (ISR). As the complement components C3a and C5a exert particularly strong chemotactic and proinflammatory effects, we examined the association of serum levels of C3a and C5a and ISR after implantation of DES. Methods: We included 82 patients that were treated with 151 DES. Blood samples were taken directly before and 24 h after PCI. Serum levels of C3a and C5a were measured by specific ELISA and restenosis was evaluated at 6-8 months by coronary angiography. Results: C5a but not C3a increased after implantation of DES (p < 0.05). During the follow-up period, two patients (2.4%) died of cardiovascular causes and 12 patients (7.9% of stents, 15% of patients) developed ISR. Serum levels of C3a before and 24 h after PCI as well as C5a levels at baseline were significantly higher in patients that developed ISR at follow-up. C3a and C5a at baseline were significantly associated to angiographic late lumen loss independent from clinical and procedural risk factors. Conclusion: Increased complement activation as measured by higher levels of C3a and C5a before PCI is significantly associated with late lumen loss. Inhibition of the complement cascade to prevent ISR warrants further investigation. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Siller-Matula J.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Jilma B.,Medical University of Vienna | Schror K.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Christ G.,Kaiser Franz Joseph Hospital | Huber K.,Wilhelminenhospital
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2010

To investigate whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) negatively affect clinical outcome in patients treated with clopidogrel. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Outcomes evaluated were combined major adverse cardiac events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, death and gastrointestinal bleeding. Studies included were randomized trials or post-hoc analyzes of randomized trials and observational studies reporting adjusted effect estimates. Twenty five studies met the selection criteria and included 159-138 patients. Administration of PPIs together with clopidogrel corresponded to a 29% increased risk of combined major cardiovascular events [risk ratio (RR)-=-1.29, 95% confidence intervals (CI)-=-1.15-1.45] and a 31% increased risk of MI (RR-=-1.31, 95%CI-=-1.12-1.53). In contrast, PPI use did not negatively influence the mortality (RR-=-1.04, 95%CI-=-0.93-1.16), whereas the risk of developing a gastrointestinal bleed under PPI treatment decreased by 50% (RR-=-0.50, 95% CI-=-0.37-0.69). The presence of significant heterogeneity might indicate that the evidence is biased, confounded or inconsistent. The sensitivity analysis, however, yielded that the direction of the effect remained unchanged irrespective of the publication type, study quality, study size or risk of developing an event. Two studies indicate that PPIs have a negative effect irrespective of clopidogrel exposure. In conclusion, concomitant PPI use might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events but does not influence the risk of death. Prospective randomized trials are required to investigate whether a cause-and-effect relationship truly exists and to explore whether different PPIs worsen clinical outcome in clopidogrel treated patients as the PPI-clopidogrel drug-drug interaction does not seem to be a class effect. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Demyanets S.,Medical University of Vienna | Kaun C.,Medical University of Vienna | Pentz R.,Medical University of Vienna | Krychtiuk K.A.,Medical University of Vienna | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2013

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a recently described member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, which was identified as a ligand for the ST2 receptor. Components of the IL-33/ST2 system were shown to be expressed in normal and pressure overloaded human myocardium, and soluble ST2 (sST2) has emerged as a prognostic biomarker in myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, expression and regulation of IL-33 in human adult cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts was not tested before. In this study we found that primary human adult cardiac fibroblasts (HACF) and human adult cardiac myocytes (HACM) constitutively express nuclear IL-33 that is released during cell necrosis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-1β significantly increased both IL-33 protein and IL-33 mRNA expression in HACF and HACM as well as in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor dimethylfumarate inhibited TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced IL-33 production as well as nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 NF-κB subunits in these cells. Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor U0126 abrogated TNF-α-, IFN-γ-, and IL-1β-induced and Janus-activated kinase inhibitor I reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-33 production. We detected IL-33 mRNA in human myocardial tissue from patients undergoing heart transplantation (n= 27) where IL-33 mRNA levels statistically significant correlated with IFN-γ (r= 0.591, p= 0.001) and TNF-α (r= 0.408, p= 0.035) mRNA expression. Endothelial cells in human heart expressed IL-33 as well as ST2 protein. We also reveal that human cardiac and vascular cells have different distribution patterns of ST2 isoforms (sST2 and transmembrane ST2L) mRNA expression and produce different amounts of sST2 protein. Both human macrovascular (aortic and coronary artery) and heart microvascular endothelial cells express specific mRNA for both ST2 isoforms (ST2L and sST2) and are a source for sST2 protein, whereas cardiac myocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and vascular SMC express only minor amounts of ST2 mRNA and do not secrete detectable amounts of sST2 antigen. In accordance with the cellular distribution of ST2 receptor, human cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes as well as HCASMC did not respond to treatment with IL-33, as recombinant human IL-33 did not induce NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits nuclear translocation or increase IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) level in HACF, HACM and HCASMC. In summary, we found that endothelial cells seem to be the source of sST2 and the target for IL-33 in the cardiovascular system. IL-33 is expressed in the nucleus of human adult cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes and released during necrosis. Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β increase IL-33 in these cells in vitro, and IL-33 mRNA levels correlated with TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression in human myocardial tissue. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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