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Vienna, Austria

Demyanets S.,Medical University of Vienna | Huber K.,Wilhelminen Hospital | Wojta J.,Medical University of Vienna | Wojta J.,Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The vessel wall is no longer considered as only an anatomical barrier for blood cells but is recognized as an active endocrine organ. Dysfunction of the vessel wall occurs in various disease processes including atherosclerosis, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and transplant and diabetic vasculopathies. Different cytokines were shown to modulate the behavior of the cells, which constitute the vessel wall such as immune cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is a common cytokine receptor that controls the activity of a group of cytokines, namely, interleukin (IL)-6, oncostatin M (OSM), IL-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), IL-27, and neuropoietin (NP). Gp130 and associated cytokines have abundantly diverse functions. Part I of this review focuses on the pathophysiological functions of gp130 ligands. We specifically describe vascular effects of these molecules and discuss the respective underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hajek R.,University of Ostrava | Bryce R.,Onyx Pharmaceuticals | Bryce R.,Puma Biotechnology | Ro S.,Onyx Pharmaceuticals | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Carfilzomib is a next-generation proteasome inhibitor with single-agent activity in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (R/R MM). In PX-171-003-A1, a single-arm phase 2 study of carfilzomib monotherapy in heavily pretreated patients, the overall response rate was 23.7%, 37% of patients achieved ≥ minimal response and median overall survival (OS) was 15.6 months. Based on this study, carfilzomib was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of R/R MM. Herein we describe the trial design and rationale for a phase 3 randomized study, FOCUS (CarFilzOmib for AdvanCed Refractory MUltiple Myeloma European Study), being conducted to compare OS after treatment with single-agent carfilzomib to best supportive care (BSC) regimen in R/R MM.Methods: Patients must have received ≥3 prior regimens, must be responsive to at least 1 line of therapy, and be refractory to their most recent therapy. Eligible patients are randomized 1:1 to receive either carfilzomib (28-day cycles at 20 mg/m2 IV on Days 1-2 of Cycle 1, escalating to 27 mg/m2 IV on Days 8, 9, 15, and 16 and continuing at 27 mg/m2 through Cycle 9 and Days 1, 2, 15, and 16 ≥ Cycle 10) or an active BSC regimen (corticosteroid treatment of prednisolone 30 mg, dexamethasone 6 mg, or equivalent every other day with optional cyclophosphamide 50 mg PO once daily). Patients will continue treatment until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or treatment discontinuation and will then enter long-term follow-up for survival. The primary endpoint is OS and secondary endpoints include progression-free survival, overall response rate, and safety. Disease assessments will be determined according to the International Myeloma Working Group Uniform Response Criteria with minimal response per European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group criteria.Conclusions: This phase 3 trial will provide more rigorous data for carfilzomib, as this is the first carfilzomib study with OS as the primary endpoint and will not be confounded by crossover and will provide more robust secondary response and safety results that will add to the data set from prior phase 2 studies. FOCUS will facilitate regulatory approvals around the world and expand treatment options for patients with R/R MM.Trial registration: EudraCT No. 2009-016840-38; NCT01302392. © 2012 Hajek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Katsaros K.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Kastl S.P.,Medical University of Vienna | Zorn G.,Medical University of Vienna | Maurer G.,Medical University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2010

Objectives: Our aim was to test whether serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are associated with the development of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES). Background: With the introduction of DES coronary ISR could be reduced dramatically. However, it still plays a significant role, particularly after treatment of multiple, complex lesions. Methods: We studied 85 patients who were treated with 159 DES. Blood samples for measurement of MMP-2 and -9 antigen and activity were taken directly before and 24 h after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Restenosis was evaluated at 6 to 8 months by coronary angiography. Results: During the follow-up period, 2 patients (2.4%) died of cardiovascular causes, and 12 patients developed angiographic ISR. Patients with ISR showed significantly higher serum activity of MMP-9 at baseline (p = 0.017) and of MMP-2 (p < 0.0001) and MMP-9 (p < 0.0001) after the procedure. The PCI increased serum activity of MMP-2 (p = 0.005) and MMP-9 (p = 0.008) only in patients with ISR. The restenosis rates of patients in the highest quartile of MMP-2 after and MMP-9 before and after PCI were 40.0%, 38.9%, and 42.9% compared with 6.3%, 7.7%, and 4.0% in the lower quartiles, respectively. This was independent of clinical and procedural characteristics. Conclusions: Elevated serum activities of MMP-2 and -9 are associated with dramatically increased restenosis rates after PCI with implantation of DES. Determination of MMP levels might be useful for identification of patients who are at high risk for ISR despite implantation of DES. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Gouya G.,Medical University of Vienna | Arrich J.,Medical University of Vienna | Wolzt M.,Medical University of Vienna | Huber K.,Wilhelminen Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

Background and Purpose - The efficacy and safety of different antiplatelet regimes for prevention of stroke in patients at high risk were investigated in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods - We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. Twenty-two studies comprising 173 371 patients were included. Results - In the overall population, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel in comparison to aspirin monotherapy reduced the relative risk of total stroke by 20% (risk ratio [RR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.88; P<0.0001; I 2=28%) and of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack by 23% (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.85; P<0.0001; I2=18%) without increasing the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. In the secondary prevention cohort, DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel also reduced the relative risk of total stroke by 24% as compared with aspirin alone (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.68-0.86; P<0.0001; I2=0%). DAPT with prasugrel or ticagrelor and aspirin versus DAPT with clopidogrel and aspirin was not associated with a risk reduction of stroke. Conclusions - DAPT with clopidogrel and aspirin compared with aspirin effectively reduces the risk of total and ischemic stroke in the overall cohort consisting of patients with cardiovascular disease without increase in intracranial hemorrhage, as well as decreases the risk of a recurrent total stroke in patients with a previous stroke/transient ischemic attack. Our meta-analysis suggests that DAPT including low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) should be further investigated as a strategy to reduce recurrent strokes. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Hylek E.M.,Boston University | Held C.,Uppsala University | Alexander J.H.,Duke University | Lopes R.D.,Duke University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives This study sought to characterize major bleeding on the basis of the components of the major bleeding definition, to explore major bleeding by location, to define 30-day mortality after a major bleeding event, and to identify factors associated with major bleeding. Background Apixaban was shown to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage among patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods All patients who received at least 1 dose of a study drug were included. Major bleeding was defined according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Factors associated with major hemorrhage were identified using a multivariable Cox model. Results The on-treatment safety population included 18,140 patients. The rate of major hemorrhage among patients in the apixaban group was 2.13% per year compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001). Compared with warfarin, major extracranial hemorrhage associated with apixaban led to reduced hospitalization, medical or surgical intervention, transfusion, or change in antithrombotic therapy. Major hemorrhage followed by mortality within 30 days occurred half as often in apixaban-treated patients than in those receiving warfarin (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.74; p < 0.001). Older age, prior hemorrhage, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, diabetes, lower creatinine clearance, decreased hematocrit, aspirin therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independently associated with an increased risk. Conclusions Apixaban, compared with warfarin, was associated with fewer intracranial hemorrhages, less adverse consequences following extracranial hemorrhage, and a 50% reduction in fatal consequences at 30 days in cases of major hemorrhage. © © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

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