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Ruperto N.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Brunner H.I.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Quartier P.,University of Paris Descartes | Constantin T.,Semmelweis University | And 34 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 is pivotal in the pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a selective, fully human, anti-interleukin-1β monoclonal antibody, in two trials. METHODS:In trial 1, we randomly assigned patients, 2 to 19 years of age, with systemic JIA and active systemic features (fever; ≥2 active joints; C-reactive protein, >30 mg per liter; and glucocorticoid dose, ≤1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), in a double-blind fashion, to a single subcutaneous dose of canakinumab (4 mg per kilogram) or placebo. The primary outcome, termed adapted JIA ACR 30 response, was defined as improvement of 30% or more in at least three of the six core criteria for JIA, worsening of more than 30% in no more than one of the criteria, and resolution of fever. In trial 2, after 32 weeks of open-label treatment with canakinumab, patients who had a response and underwent glucocorticoid tapering were randomly assigned to continued treatment with canakinumab or to placebo. The primary outcome was time to flare of systemic JIA. RESULTS: At day 15 in trial 1, more patients in the canakinumab group had an adapted JIA ACR 30 response (36 of 43 [84%], vs. 4 of 41 [10%] in the placebo group; P<0.001). In trial 2, among the 100 patients (of 177 in the open-label phase) who underwent randomization in the withdrawal phase, the risk of flare was lower among patients who continued to receive canakinumab than among those who were switched to placebo (74% of patients in the canakinumab group had no flare, vs. 25% in the placebo group, according to Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratio, 0.36; P = 0.003). The average glucocorticoid dose was reduced from 0.34 to 0.05 mg per kilogram per day, and glucocorticoids were discontinued in 42 of 128 patients (33%). The macrophage activation syndrome occurred in 7 patients; infections were more frequent with canakinumab than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: These two phase 3 studies show the efficacy of canakinumab in systemic JIA with active systemic features. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00889863 and NCT00886769.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Lazarevic D.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Pistorio A.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Palmisani E.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Miettunen P.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | And 18 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Objectives: To develop data-driven criteria for clinically inactive disease on and off therapy for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Methods: The Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) database contains 275 patients with active JDM evaluated prospectively up to 24 months. Thirty-eight patients off therapy at 24 months were defined as clinically inactive and included in the reference group. These were compared with a random sample of 76 patients who had active disease at study baseline. Individual measures of muscle strength/ endurance, muscle enzymes, physician's and parent's global disease activity/damage evaluations, inactive disease criteria derived from the literature and other ad hoc criteria were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity and Cohen's κ agreement. Results: The individual measures that best characterised inactive disease (sensitivity and specificity >0.8 and Cohen's κ >0.8) were manual muscle testing (MMT) ≥78, physician global assessment of muscle activity=0, physician global assessment of overall disease activity (PhyGloVAS) ≤0.2, Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) ≥48, Disease Activity Score ≤3 and Myositis Disease Activity Assessment Visual Analogue Scale ≤0.2. The best combination of variables to classify a patient as being in a state of inactive disease on or off therapy is at least three of four of the following criteria: creatine kinase ≤150, CMAS ≥48, MMT ≥78 and PhyGloVAS ≤0.2. After 24 months, 30/31 patients (96.8%) were inactive off therapy and 69/145 (47.6%) were inactive on therapy. Conclusion: PRINTO established data-driven criteria with clearly evidence-based cut-off values to identify JDM patients with clinically inactive disease. These criteria can be used in clinical trials, in research and in clinical practice.


Ruperto N.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Pistorio A.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Oliveira S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zulian F.,Clinica Pediatrica i | And 36 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Summary Background Most data for treatment of dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis are from anecdotal, non-randomised case series. We aimed to compare, in a randomised trial, the efficacy and safety of prednisone alone with that of prednisone plus either methotrexate or ciclosporin in children with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis. Methods We did a randomised trial at 54 centres in 22 countries. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or younger with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis who had received no previous treatment and did not have cutaneous or gastrointestinal ulceration. We randomly allocated 139 patients via a computer-based system to prednisone alone or in combination with either ciclosporin or methotrexate. We did not mask patients or investigators to treatment assignments. Our primary outcomes were the proportion of patients achieving a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 level of improvement (20% improvement in three of six core set variables at 6 months), time to clinical remission, and time to treatment failure. We compared the three treatment groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedman's test, and we analysed survival with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Analysis was by intention to treat. Here, we present results after at least 2 years of treatment (induction and maintenance phases). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00323960. Findings Between May 31, 2006, and Nov 12, 2010, 47 patients were randomly assigned prednisone alone, 46 were allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 46 were randomised prednisone plus methotrexate. Median duration of follow-up was 35·5 months. At month 6, 24 (51%) of 47 patients assigned prednisone, 32 (70%) of 46 allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 33 (72%) of 46 administered prednisone plus methotrexate achieved a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 improvement (p=0·0228). Median time to clinical remission was 41·9 months in patients assigned prednisone plus methotrexate but was not observable in the other two treatment groups (2·45 fold [95% CI 1·2-5·0] increase with prednisone plus methotrexate; p=0·012). Median time to treatment failure was 16·7 months in patients allocated prednisone, 53·3 months in those assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin, but was not observable in patients randomised to prednisone plus methotrexate (1·95 fold [95% CI 1·20-3·15] increase with prednisone; p=0·009). Median time to prednisone discontinuation was 35·8 months with prednisone alone compared with 29·4-29·7 months in the combination groups (p=0·002). A significantly greater proportion of patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin had adverse events, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues, gastrointestinal system, and general disorders. Infections and infestations were significantly increased in patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin and prednisone plus methotrexate. No patients died during the study. Interpretation Combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate was more effective than prednisone alone. The safety profile and steroid-sparing effect favoured the combination of prednisone plus methotrexate. Funding Italian Agency of Drug Evaluation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini (Genoa, Italy), Myositis Association (USA). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Nantes University Hospital Center, University of Strasbourg, Detska Fakultna Nemocnica and 31 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2016

Most data for treatment of dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis are from anecdotal, non-randomised case series. We aimed to compare, in a randomised trial, the efficacy and safety of prednisone alone with that of prednisone plus either methotrexate or ciclosporin in children with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis.We did a randomised trial at 54 centres in 22 countries. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or younger with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis who had received no previous treatment and did not have cutaneous or gastrointestinal ulceration. We randomly allocated 139 patients via a computer-based system to prednisone alone or in combination with either ciclosporin or methotrexate. We did not mask patients or investigators to treatment assignments. Our primary outcomes were the proportion of patients achieving a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 level of improvement (20% improvement in three of six core set variables at 6 months), time to clinical remission, and time to treatment failure. We compared the three treatment groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedmans test, and we analysed survival with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Analysis was by intention to treat. Here, we present results after at least 2 years of treatment (induction and maintenance phases). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00323960.Between May 31, 2006, and Nov 12, 2010, 47 patients were randomly assigned prednisone alone, 46 were allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 46 were randomised prednisone plus methotrexate. Median duration of follow-up was 35.5 months. At month 6, 24 (51%) of 47 patients assigned prednisone, 32 (70%) of 46 allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 33 (72%) of 46 administered prednisone plus methotrexate achieved a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 improvement (p=0.0228). Median time to clinical remission was 41.9 months in patients assigned prednisone plus methotrexate but was not observable in the other two treatment groups (2.45 fold [95% CI 1.2-5.0] increase with prednisone plus methotrexate; p=0.012). Median time to treatment failure was 16.7 months in patients allocated prednisone, 53.3 months in those assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin, but was not observable in patients randomised to prednisone plus methotrexate (1.95 fold [95% CI 1.20-3.15] increase with prednisone; p=0.009). Median time to prednisone discontinuation was 35.8 months with prednisone alone compared with 29.4-29.7 months in the combination groups (p=0.002). A significantly greater proportion of patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin had adverse events, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues, gastrointestinal system, and general disorders. Infections and infestations were significantly increased in patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin and prednisone plus methotrexate. No patients died during the study.Combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate was more effective than prednisone alone. The safety profile and steroid-sparing effect favoured the combination of prednisone plus methotrexate.Italian Agency of Drug Evaluation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini (Genoa, Italy), Myositis Association (USA).


PubMed | Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, University of Genoa, Randall Childrens Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Hospital for Sick Children and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Arthritis research & therapy | Year: 2017

Canakinumab is a human anti-interleukin-1 (IL-1) monoclonal antibody neutralizing IL-1-mediated pathways. We sought to characterize the molecular response to canakinumab and evaluate potential markers of response using samples from two pivotal trials in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA).Gene expression was measured in patients with febrile SJIA and in matched healthy controls by Affymetrix DNA microarrays. Transcriptional response was assessed by gene expression changes from baseline to day 3 using adapted JIA American College of Rheumatology (aACR) response criteria (50 aACR JIA). Changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-18 were assessed up to day 197.Microarray analysis identified 984 probe sets differentially expressed (2-fold difference; P<0.05) in patients versus controls. Over 50% of patients with 50 aACR JIA were recognizable by baseline expression values. Analysis of gene expression profiles from patients achieving 50 aACR JIA response at day 15 identified 102 probe sets differentially expressed upon treatment (2-fold difference; P<0.05) on day 3 versus baseline, including IL-1, IL-1 receptors (IL1-R1 and IL1-R2), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1-RAP), and IL-6. The strongest clinical response was observed in patients with higher baseline expression of dysregulated genes and a strong transcriptional response on day 3. IL-6 declined by day 3 (8-fold decline; P<0.0001) and remained suppressed. IL-18 declined on day 57 (1.5-fold decline, P0.002).Treatment with canakinumab in SJIA patients resulted in downregulation of innate immune response genes and reductions in IL-6 and clinical symptoms. Additional research is needed to investigate potential differences in the disease mechanisms in patients with heterogeneous gene transcription profiles.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00886769 (trial 1). Registered on 22 April 2009; NCT00889863 (trial 2). Registered on 21 April 2009.


PubMed | Gadjah Mada University, Johns Hopkins University and Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research | Year: 2016

Gastroschisis is a developmental disorder involving the extrusion of fetal intestines through a defect in the abdominal wall. The mechanism is presumed to be a dual vascular/thrombotic pathogenesis, where normal right umbilical vein involution forms a possible site for thrombosis adjacent to the umbilical ring.The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the 3 common prothrombotic polymorphisms, MTHFR c.677C>T, F2 c.20210G>A, and F5 Leiden, were elevated in frequency in Indonesian gastroschisis patients.Three genetic markers were investigated in 46 patients with gastroschisis and 89 ethnicity-matched controls for association studies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) or TaqMan Genotyping Assays on genomic DNA.MTHFR c.677C>T showed a significant association with gastroschisis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.13-3.86; p = .018) but no affected infants had risk alleles for either F2 c.20210G>A or F5 Leiden. Further, the frequency of MTHFR risk allele (T) in patients with maternal age <25 years is marginally significant higher than those in cases with maternal age 25 years (p = .069) with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI = 0.90-8.07).MTHFR is a common susceptibility factor for gastroschisis in Indonesia. The increased gastroschisis risk in offspring of younger maternal age suggests the thrombotic pathogenesis model. A founder effect is the most likely explanation for the rarity of the F2 and F5 Leiden polymorphisms in Indonesian population.

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