Wildlife Trust of India

Greater Noida, India

Wildlife Trust of India

Greater Noida, India
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Yadav P.K.,G B Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development Kosi Katarmal | Yadav P.K.,Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University | Sarma K.,Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University | Kumar R.,Wildlife Trust of India
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2013

The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum), which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years' time (Jhum cycle). But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

Barman R.,Center for Wildlife Rehabilitation and Conservation | Choudhury B.,Field Office | Ashraf N.V.K.,Wildlife Trust of India | Menon V.,Wildlife Trust of India
Pachyderm | Year: 2014

For the first time in the history of rhino conservation in India, three rescued orphan greater one-horned rhinoceros calves have been rehabilitated in an area that in the recent past was a good habitat for rhinos. The calves were rescued in Kaziranga National Park (NP) when they were about one to five months old when they were swept away by flood waters. The calves were hand reared and nursed at the Centre for Wildlife Rehabilitation and Conservation (CWRC) with the aim of releasing them into their natural habitat. They were fed human milk formula until they reached two years of age, and then with concentrates and greens in paddocks in CWRC. At the age of about three years the calves were translocated to Manas NP, about 500 km away from Kaziranga, and placed in a pre-release area measuring 600 acres. This pre-release area is enclosed with an electric fence and the calves were free to roam and forage within it. After spending about two years in this area the calves were released into Manas NP. The calves were radio monitored for two years; they all survived and created their own home ranges. © 2014, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. All rights reserved.

Subburaman S.,Wildlife Trust of India | Murugan A.,Annamalai University | Goutham S.,Wildlife Trust of India | Kaul R.,Wildlife Trust of India | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Marine Sciences | Year: 2014

Hippocampus camelopardalis was described based on the occurrence of a single specimen obtained from Mithapur reef region from the Gulf of Kachchh Marine National Park region, Gujarat. The discovery of this seahorse is considered as new record based on the review of earlier literature from Indian waters. The observed species is currently reported to occur from South African waters and present study infers its distributional range to Arabian Sea (Indian west coast). The observed specimen shows similarity to other seahorse species like H.trimaculatus and H.whitei based on the occurrence of three spots on its body and snout length respectively.

Ahmad R.,Nature Conservation Foundation | Mishra C.,Nature Conservation Foundation | Singh N.J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Kaul R.,Wildlife Trust of India | Bhatnagar Y.V.,Nature Conservation Foundation
Current Science | Year: 2016

Food acquisition and security from predators are primary determinants of habitat use in ungulates. There is usually a trade-off in the response of animals to these two factors, influenced by the individual's reproductive state. Females with vulnerable offspring, after parturition, are expected to compromise food acquisition for security. In temperate species such as the markhor Capra falconeri, however, the females give birth at a time when nutritious forage begins to become available after the long lean period of winter. The need to access quality forage in spring should, therefore, be significant even for new mothers, making the issue of female habitat choice particularly interesting and important to understand. We assessed habitat use patterns of the Pirpanjal markhor during the winter and parturition periods, to examine the response of markhor females to contrasting pressures of forage acquisition and neonate security. Markhor were observed during morning and evening hours along trails and vantage points in the Limber Wildlife Sanctuary, western Himalaya, India. Vegetation abundance and quality were assessed. Principal Components Analyses revealed that during winter, as expected, access to forage was the primary factor influencing habitat choice by female markhor. Following parturition, however, despite the low availability of quality forage throughout the preceding winter, markhor mothers predominantly used secure areas with steep slopes closer to cliffs, even though they were poorer in forage availability. Our results underscore the importance of neonate security in determining habitat use of markhor and the causes of low productivity of this population.

Sharma N.,Indian Institute of Science | Sharma N.,Nature Conservation Foundation | Madhusudan M.D.,Nature Conservation Foundation | Sarkar P.,Wildlife Trust of India | And 3 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2012

The historical deforestation of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley in the Indian state of Assam has resulted in the transformation of its once-contiguous lowland rainforests into many isolated forest fragments that are still rich in species, including primates. We report the recent history and current status of six diurnal primates in one large (2,098 ha) and three small (<500 ha) fragments of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley. We censused primates in the small fragments during 2002, 2005, 2009, in the large fragment in 2008, and used other published census data to derive population trends. We also used key informant surveys to obtain historical occurrence data for these populations. Our analyses reveal the recent extinction of some populations and the simultaneous long-term persistence of others in these fragments over 16 years. Most populations appeared to have declined in the small fragments but primate abundance has increased significantly in the largest fragment over the last decade. Addressing the biomass needs of the local human populations, which appears to drive habitat degradation, and better protection of these forests, will be crucial in ensuring the future survival of this diverse and unique primate assemblage in the last rainforest fragments of the human-dominated Upper Brahmaputra Valley. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

Bhadouria B.S.,Wildlife Institute of India | Mathur V.B.,Wildlife Institute of India | Kaul R.,Wildlife Trust of India
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is an important wintering ground for thousands of birds that undertake a perilous journey over the Himalaya to make a seasonal home in a wetland ecosystem. However, this wetland is now getting polluted by various types of contaminants such as pesticides because of the agricultural practices in the catchment area from where the park receives water. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been undertaken to assess the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the sediments inside and around KNP. Samples were collected from the different blocks of the park. The concentrations of α-HCH, β- HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, S-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, hept.epoxide, endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II, endo. sulfate, S-endosulfan, endrin, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, and DDT were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analysis showed that the samples were contaminated with the above mentioned pesticides and that the concentration of total OCPs in the sediments varied from0.1173 (dieldrin) to 5.558 ppm(γ HCH) in the samples collected from inside the park, whereas a range of pesticides varying in concentration from 0.1245 (4,4'-DDD) to 7.54 ppm (γ HCH) was found in samples from outside the park. Residues of SHCH and S-endosulfan were not detected in any of the sediment samples. The occurrence of pesticides inside the park is a major threat to the park's biodiversity. Ecofriendly agriculture practices with minimal use of inorganic chemicals are suggested to minimize the pesticide residue levels in the park. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Varma S.,Indian Institute of Science | Aiyadurai A.,Wildlife Trust of India | Babu N.,Indian Institute of Science | Menon V.,Wildlife Trust of India
International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Mithun (Bos gaums frontalis), a semi-domestic bovid is reported to be depredated regularly by predators particular the wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) and the villagers retaliate by killing the predators. This survey focused on the overall patterns and causes of the predator-human conflict. The result showed that the region has more predators (56 %) than preys (44 %). The encounter rate (3.43 km-1) and frequency of occurrence of mithun signs (65%) were high compared to encounter rate (0.19 km-1) and frequency of occurrence (4%) of natural preys. Low encounter rates of wild prey or the lack of optimal prey species and the relatively high encounter rates of free ranging livestock were the causes for the conflict. The loss of mithun has a severe effect on the local community's (Nyishi) economy, culture and sentiments as it plays an integral role in their culture and tradition. © NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGY, NEW DELHI.

Kundu S.,Wildlife Trust of India | Singh R.,Government Veterinary Hospital | Mandal D.,Wildlife Trust of India | Singh A.Kr.,Wildlife Trust of India
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014

The present observation from the wild is first of its kind in the Corbett landscape and adds to the records of Musth like secretion from temporal glands in female Asian elephants from India. This is also the first observation in the whole North Indian elephant range. No such observation is been reported from Corbett Land scape prior to this article. It also indicates that though the phenomenon of temporal gland secretion is rare in female Asian elephants but could be seen in some individual female elephants during the instances of pregnancy. Copyright © EM International.

Deb M.,Assam University | Adhikary P.,Institutional Biotech Hub | Slama P.,Mendel University in Brno | Havlicek Z.,Mendel University in Brno | And 3 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2015

Phayre's leaf-monkeys (Trachipithecus phayrei) or Phayre's langurs are old world monkeys that inhabit South-East Asian tropical forests. The species is under a severe threat due to large scale habitat destruction and disturbances by people living near the habitat of langurs. The present study recorded the aggressive behavior of male langurs towards domestic dogs in the Cachar district of Assam. Response of each member in the troop was observed. The sophisticated behavior of males in safeguarding the weaker members was observed. In conclusion, the harassment by domestic dogs may result in the expulsion of Phayre's langurs from their native habitat.

Deb M.,Assam University | Nautiyal S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Slama P.,Mendel University in Brno | Bhattacharjee P.C.,Wildlife Trust of India | Roychoudhury S.,Assam University
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2015

Northeast India is amongst most bio-diverse ecological communities although recent developmental activities marred the environment to a great extent. Assam University campus in Silchar is situated in Barak valley of Assam, boasting a variety of habitats supporting invertebrate diversity. Heavy rainfall during monsoon increases vegetation and in turn larval food plants and overall butterfly density. Total 38 butterfly species were identified belonging to 30 genera under 5 families: Nymphalidae having the maximum species richness (58%), followed by Hesperiidae (13%), Lycaenidae (13%), Pieridae (11%) and Papilionidae (5%). This paper focuses on the problems and possible solutions towards butterfly conservation and highlights the role of academic institutions in conserving biodiversity by acting as green spaces for reducing effects of climate change, carbon sequestration and lowering of energy consumption among other benefits.

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