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Yadav P.K.,G B Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development Kosi Katarmal | Yadav P.K.,Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University | Sarma K.,Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University | Kumar R.,Wildlife Trust of India
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2013

The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum), which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years' time (Jhum cycle). But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya. Source


Bhadouria B.S.,Wildlife Institute of India | Mathur V.B.,Wildlife Institute of India | Kaul R.,Wildlife Trust of India
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is an important wintering ground for thousands of birds that undertake a perilous journey over the Himalaya to make a seasonal home in a wetland ecosystem. However, this wetland is now getting polluted by various types of contaminants such as pesticides because of the agricultural practices in the catchment area from where the park receives water. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been undertaken to assess the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the sediments inside and around KNP. Samples were collected from the different blocks of the park. The concentrations of α-HCH, β- HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, S-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, hept.epoxide, endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II, endo. sulfate, S-endosulfan, endrin, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, and DDT were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analysis showed that the samples were contaminated with the above mentioned pesticides and that the concentration of total OCPs in the sediments varied from0.1173 (dieldrin) to 5.558 ppm(γ HCH) in the samples collected from inside the park, whereas a range of pesticides varying in concentration from 0.1245 (4,4'-DDD) to 7.54 ppm (γ HCH) was found in samples from outside the park. Residues of SHCH and S-endosulfan were not detected in any of the sediment samples. The occurrence of pesticides inside the park is a major threat to the park's biodiversity. Ecofriendly agriculture practices with minimal use of inorganic chemicals are suggested to minimize the pesticide residue levels in the park. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source


Ahmad R.,University of Mysore | Mishra C.,University of Mysore | Singh N.J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Kaul R.,Wildlife Trust of India | Bhatnagar Y.V.,University of Mysore
Current Science | Year: 2016

Food acquisition and security from predators are primary determinants of habitat use in ungulates. There is usually a trade-off in the response of animals to these two factors, influenced by the individual's reproductive state. Females with vulnerable offspring, after parturition, are expected to compromise food acquisition for security. In temperate species such as the markhor Capra falconeri, however, the females give birth at a time when nutritious forage begins to become available after the long lean period of winter. The need to access quality forage in spring should, therefore, be significant even for new mothers, making the issue of female habitat choice particularly interesting and important to understand. We assessed habitat use patterns of the Pirpanjal markhor during the winter and parturition periods, to examine the response of markhor females to contrasting pressures of forage acquisition and neonate security. Markhor were observed during morning and evening hours along trails and vantage points in the Limber Wildlife Sanctuary, western Himalaya, India. Vegetation abundance and quality were assessed. Principal Components Analyses revealed that during winter, as expected, access to forage was the primary factor influencing habitat choice by female markhor. Following parturition, however, despite the low availability of quality forage throughout the preceding winter, markhor mothers predominantly used secure areas with steep slopes closer to cliffs, even though they were poorer in forage availability. Our results underscore the importance of neonate security in determining habitat use of markhor and the causes of low productivity of this population. Source


Deb M.,Assam University | Nautiyal S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Slama P.,Mendel University in Brno | Bhattacharjee P.C.,Wildlife Trust of India | Roychoudhury S.,Assam University
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2015

Northeast India is amongst most bio-diverse ecological communities although recent developmental activities marred the environment to a great extent. Assam University campus in Silchar is situated in Barak valley of Assam, boasting a variety of habitats supporting invertebrate diversity. Heavy rainfall during monsoon increases vegetation and in turn larval food plants and overall butterfly density. Total 38 butterfly species were identified belonging to 30 genera under 5 families: Nymphalidae having the maximum species richness (58%), followed by Hesperiidae (13%), Lycaenidae (13%), Pieridae (11%) and Papilionidae (5%). This paper focuses on the problems and possible solutions towards butterfly conservation and highlights the role of academic institutions in conserving biodiversity by acting as green spaces for reducing effects of climate change, carbon sequestration and lowering of energy consumption among other benefits. Source


Deb M.,Assam University | Adhikary P.,Institutional Biotech Hub | Slama P.,Mendel University in Brno | Havlicek Z.,Mendel University in Brno | And 3 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2015

Phayre's leaf-monkeys (Trachipithecus phayrei) or Phayre's langurs are old world monkeys that inhabit South-East Asian tropical forests. The species is under a severe threat due to large scale habitat destruction and disturbances by people living near the habitat of langurs. The present study recorded the aggressive behavior of male langurs towards domestic dogs in the Cachar district of Assam. Response of each member in the troop was observed. The sophisticated behavior of males in safeguarding the weaker members was observed. In conclusion, the harassment by domestic dogs may result in the expulsion of Phayre's langurs from their native habitat. Source

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