Anses Wildlife Surveillance and Eco epidemiology unit

Malzéville, France

Anses Wildlife Surveillance and Eco epidemiology unit

Malzéville, France
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Umhang G.,ANSES Wildlife Surveillance and Eco epidemiology unit | Karamon J.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Hormaz V.,ANSES Wildlife Surveillance and Eco epidemiology unit | Knapp J.,University of Burgundy | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2017

Alveolar echinococcosis is a severe zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. In Europe, the lifecycle of this cestode is mainly sylvatic based on a prey-predator interaction between the red fox and small rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. National surveillance of E. multilocularis in red foxes in Poland has reported a clear distinction between low endemic areas (from 2 to 5.7%) in the western half and high endemic areas (11.8 to 50.0%) in the eastern half of the country. A drastic increase of prevalence has been observed in the eastern half of Poland since the 2000's. Microsatellite EmsB genotyping was performed on 301 E. multilocularis worms from 87 foxes sampled throughout Poland, leading to identification of 29 EmsB profiles. The main profile, Pol19, was identified across the country and accounted for 44.9% of the worms collected. The conformity of 18 Polish profiles was established by comparison with previous profiles identified in Europe, but none corresponded to the most common European profiles. Poland was confirmed as a peripheral area of the main European focus, with more recent colonization by the parasite. The sharing of common profiles mainly by neighboring provinces was confirmed by a clustering analysis identifying four main groups. Expansion of the parasite in Poland in these four groups appears to be influenced by the situation in neighboring countries. Acquiring EmsB genotyping data from eastern European countries, for which very few data are reported, is necessary to understand the expansion of the parasite in the whole of Europe. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Hohenheim, University of Zürich, Federal University of Santa Maria, Anses Wildlife Surveillance and Eco epidemiology unit and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Parasitology | Year: 2016

The zoonotic cestode Echinococcus ortleppi (Lopez-Neyra and Soler Planas, 1943) is mainly transmitted between dogs and cattle. It occurs worldwide but is only found sporadically in most regions, with the notable exception of parts of southern Africa and South America. Its epidemiology is little understood and the extent of intraspecific variability is unknown. We have analysed in the present study the genetic diversity among 178 E. ortleppi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and South America using the complete mitochondrial cox1 (1608 bp) and nad1 (894 bp) DNA sequences. Genetic polymorphism within the loci revealed 15 cox1 and six nad1 haplotypes, respectively, and 20 haplotypes of the concatenated genes. Presence of most haplotypes was correlated to geographical regions, and only one haplotype had a wider spread in both eastern and southern Africa. Intraspecific microvariance was low in comparison with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, despite the wide geographic range of examined isolates. In addition, the various sub-populations showed only subtle deviation from neutrality and were mostly genetically differentiated. This is the first insight into the population genetics of the enigmatic cattle adapted Echinococcus ortleppi. It, therefore, provides baseline data for biogeographical comparison among E. ortleppi endemic regions and for tracing its translocation paths.

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