Wildlife Institute of India

Dehradun, India

Wildlife Institute of India

Dehradun, India

The Wildlife Institute of India is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.WII carries out wildlife research in areas of study like Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Wildlife Policy, Wildlife Management, Wildlife Forensics, Spatial Modeling, Ecodevelopment, and Climate Change. WII has a research facility which includes Forensics, Remote Sensing and GIS, Laboratory, Herbarium, and an Electronic Library. The founder was V. B. Saharia while the first Director was Hemendra Singh Panwar who remained the director from 1985 to 1994. Trained personnel from WII have contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India. WII has also popularized wildlife studies and careers.The institute is based in Dehradun, India. It is located in Chandrabani, which is close to the southern forests of Dehradun. Wikipedia.


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The flow of genes between Bengal tigers in two reserves of the Terai Arc Landscape in western Himalayan foothills is too low, according to a study published April 26, 2017 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Surendra Prakash Goyal from Wildlife Institute of India, India, and colleagues. Tigers are endangered partly due to habitat loss, which can fragment populations and reduce gene flow among them. Gene flow between populations can maintain genetic variation and spread beneficial gene alleles, so understanding the gene flow of isolated tiger populations i.e. in western Himalayan foothills is crucial in developing management strategies for conserving these big cats. Goyal and colleagues analyzed DNA from 71 samples of tissue, blood or scat from Bengal tigers to assess their gene flow in an 1,800-square-kilometer region of the western Himalayan foothills. The region has two main subpopulations of tigers, one in the Rajaji Tiger Reserve and the other in the Corbett Tiger Reserve. The researchers found that tiger gene flow between two reserves was asymmetrical and was lower than in previous reports in other tiger populations. Functionality of the corridor (C1 and C2 map) could remain viable if habitat quality does not deteriorate any more. However, given changing land use in the connecting corridor, the gene flow was inadequate. The authors suggest that measures to maintain connectivity between the tiger reserves could include relocating villages and industries, reducing human dependency, banning sand and boulder mining in the corridors. In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS ONE: http://journals. Citation: Singh SK, Aspi J, Kvist L, Sharma R, Pandey P, Mishra S, et al. (2017) Fine-scale population genetic structure of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in a human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape, India. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174371. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174371 Funding: This work was supported by Wildlife Institute of India to SPG. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For decades, among the most enduring questions for ecologists have been: "Why do species live where they do? And what are the factors that keep them there?" A Princeton University-based study featured on the February cover of the journal Ecology could prove significant in answering that question, particularly for animals in the world's temperate mountain areas. The researchers spent two years documenting the distribution of 70 bird species across the Himalayas in India and found that temperature and habitat predominantly determine the elevations where the birds live. Earlier research by other scientists on tropical birds had shown that competition limited the ranges of most species, a conclusion often presumed to be true for temperate zones as well. The researchers found, however, that competition sets the boundaries for a mere 12 percent of Himalayan bird species, while temperature and habitat dictate where 48 and 40 percent of species, respectively, feather their nests. The study is among the first to specifically record temperature across different species' entire elevational ranges; previous studies had used elevation as an unreliable proxy for temperature. The findings provide strong evidence that competition and other factors are not uniformly important across all regions of the world, said co-author David Wilcove, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and public affairs and the Princeton Environmental Institute. "The rules of the game are very different in different places," Wilcove said. "It's an important step toward building a comprehensive global perspective. Understanding this could be really important in predicting how life on Earth will change under climate change. If we're not able to understand the rules by which nature is put together, we won't understand how all the things we're doing to the world will affect the wildlife." First author Paul Elsen, who led the study as a Princeton graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology, explained that the findings indicate that species living in temperate mountain habitats -- particularly in the northern latitudes -- could face even greater repercussions from climate change than previously thought as temperatures rise and habitats change or are disrupted. The researchers selected birds for their ubiquity, variety and ease of observation, but the results could likely apply to many other warm-blooded mountain species, he said. "If species are bound to where they live by temperature, they are going to be much more controlled by temperature moving forward than we may have thought. Where they live in the future will likely directly track local temperature changes resulting from global climate change," said Elsen, now a David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellow at the University of California-Berkeley. "Mountainous regions are very sensitive to climate change because their temperatures are increasing rapidly," Elsen said. "Across the world, we've already seen species shifting their ranges in response to climate change." If scientists and conservationists know the factors that determine why species live where they do, they can more effectively target their efforts and resources to ensure those species' survival, said Wilcove, who was Elsen's doctoral adviser at Princeton. "If the pattern we found for Himalayan birds applies more generally across the temperate zone, we can expect disruptions in the communities of species across those zones in the wake of climate change and land-use change," Wilcove said. "If you know species will have to move -- but we can't predict with confidence exactly where they'll move -- you want to make it as easy as possible for them to get from one place to another and find the resources they need," he said. "That bolsters the case for more parks and reserves spanning more places," Wilcove said. "We have to think about the larger landscape and make sure we have plenty of places for species to go. We also need to find ways to provide corridors of suitable habitat between protected areas so species can move as the climate changes." Because habitats change with elevation, mountains are ideal for studying how species change with temperature and terrain, Elsen said. "If a species is spread out across a vast area, it's extremely difficult to study that species across its entire natural range," he said. "If you work in mountainous areas, however, where each species occupies a particular elevational band, you can step into a species' range in the morning and by the afternoon be at the end of it just by walking upslope. We can study a large number of bird species relatively easily." The study focused on three types of mountain habitat in the Indian Himalayas: mixed broad-leaf and coniferous forests; mixed coniferous forests; and high-altitude forests composed largely of hardy evergreens such as firs. These habitats are similar to those found in other temperate regions, including the United States. Elsen spent four months on foot scouting locations in the Himalayas for his research. He needed relatively undisturbed habitats on continuous elevational gradients ascending the mountainside; at the same time, Elsen had to be able to walk the terrain while burdened with camping and scientific equipment. He spent April-June of 2013 and 2014 trekking across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand collecting data. Elsen, along with co-author and lead field assistant Ramnarayan Kalyanaraman of the Himal Prakriti nature trust in Uttarakhand, recorded the presence and abundance of bird species as well as the habitat and temperature (using monitoring equipment he set up for the duration of the study). Co-author Krishnamurthy Ramesh from the Wildlife Institute of India acted as Elsen's adviser in India and assisted with permits and logistics. The Himalayas exhibit a remarkable diversity of birds, Elsen said -- nearly 10 percent of the world's bird species live there for at least part of the year. Uniquely, the diversity of Himalayan birds increases two-fold as one moves from west to east, he said. Because of that, Elsen and his field assistants were able to isolate and analyze competition as a mechanism for species distribution. The eastern Himalayas have more species and therefore a higher number of potential competitors than the western Himalayas. Thus, if species are limited by competition, birds that occur in both the east and the west should occupy a narrower band of elevation toward the eastern part of their geographic range, Elsen said. But the researchers found that more than three-fourths of species lived side-by-side with their presumed competitors. On the other hand, nearly half of the bird species studied had their elevational ranges determined by temperature or habitat. "Species are actually able to coexist with what we expected to be their dominant competitors," Elsen said. "The numbers of species limited by temperature and habitat, however, are much larger than previous studies from other parts of the world have reported. The significance is that temperature is going to play a much more important role in establishing future distributions than we previously thought." Trevor Price, a professor of biology at the University of Chicago, said that the robust data the researchers provide convincingly portray temperature and habitat as significant determinants of range, not just in the Himalayas but possibly much more broadly. "One of the extremely impressive things about this study is that they managed to document all these bird distributions," said Price, who is familiar with the research but had no role in it. "I think the results are fascinating, and an important contribution. Their results are very general and it would be worth trying to replicate them elsewhere. I really don't think systems are that different around the world," he said. "Theoreticians can use these data to model how we think climate change will affect ranges. As the temperature moves up the mountain, the birds will likely move with it." Yet the findings show that no one factor guides species ranges the world over, Price said. Just as the study found that competition is not universally applicable, the strong influence of temperature in the Himalayas suggests that other factors such as rainfall and parasites might govern species' territories in other parts of the world. "This clearly shows a role for temperature, but it's very difficult to apportion the effects among all the different things that could be going on. I actually believe that temperature is among many factors -- indeed, temperature and precipitation are likely to also affect where prey and other resources are located, thereby indirectly affecting these birds," Price said. "The background data they have now will set the stage for much more rigorous analyses," he said. "Ultimately, we are going to need more detailed studies to ask how the various factors interact. The bottom line is that there has got to be a combination of all these factors at work -- there can't just be one." The paper, "The role of competition, ecotones and temperature in the elevational distribution of Himalayan birds," was published in the February 2017 edition of Ecology. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (grant no. DGE-1148900), the High Meadows Foundation and the Walbridge Fund.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: phys.org

The researchers spent two years documenting the distribution of 70 bird species across the Himalayas in India and found that temperature and habitat predominantly determine the elevations where the birds live. Earlier research by other scientists on tropical birds had shown that competition limited the ranges of most species, a conclusion often presumed to be true for temperate zones as well. The researchers found, however, that competition sets the boundaries for a mere 12 percent of Himalayan bird species, while temperature and habitat dictate where 48 and 40 percent of species, respectively, feather their nests. The study is among the first to specifically record temperature across different species' entire elevational ranges; previous studies had used elevation as an unreliable proxy for temperature. The findings provide strong evidence that competition and other factors are not uniformly important across all regions of the world, said co-author David Wilcove, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and public affairs and the Princeton Environmental Institute. "The rules of the game are very different in different places," Wilcove said. "It's an important step toward building a comprehensive global perspective. Understanding this could be really important in predicting how life on Earth will change under climate change. If we're not able to understand the rules by which nature is put together, we won't understand how all the things we're doing to the world will affect the wildlife." First author Paul Elsen, who led the study as a Princeton graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology, explained that the findings indicate that species living in temperate mountain habitats—particularly in the northern latitudes—could face even greater repercussions from climate change than previously thought as temperatures rise and habitats change or are disrupted. The researchers selected birds for their ubiquity, variety and ease of observation, but the results could likely apply to many other warm-blooded mountain species, he said. "If species are bound to where they live by temperature, they are going to be much more controlled by temperature moving forward than we may have thought. Where they live in the future will likely directly track local temperature changes resulting from global climate change," said Elsen, now a David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellow at the University of California-Berkeley. "Mountainous regions are very sensitive to climate change because their temperatures are increasing rapidly," Elsen said. "Across the world, we've already seen species shifting their ranges in response to climate change." If scientists and conservationists know the factors that determine why species live where they do, they can more effectively target their efforts and resources to ensure those species' survival, said Wilcove, who was Elsen's doctoral adviser at Princeton. "If the pattern we found for Himalayan birds applies more generally across the temperate zone, we can expect disruptions in the communities of species across those zones in the wake of climate change and land-use change," Wilcove said. "If you know species will have to move—but we can't predict with confidence exactly where they'll move—you want to make it as easy as possible for them to get from one place to another and find the resources they need," he said. "That bolsters the case for more parks and reserves spanning more places," Wilcove said. "We have to think about the larger landscape and make sure we have plenty of places for species to go. We also need to find ways to provide corridors of suitable habitat between protected areas so species can move as the climate changes." Because habitats change with elevation, mountains are ideal for studying how species change with temperature and terrain, Elsen said. "If a species is spread out across a vast area, it's extremely difficult to study that species across its entire natural range," he said. "If you work in mountainous areas, however, where each species occupies a particular elevational band, you can step into a species' range in the morning and by the afternoon be at the end of it just by walking upslope. We can study a large number of bird species relatively easily." The study focused on three types of mountain habitat in the Indian Himalayas: mixed broad-leaf and coniferous forests; mixed coniferous forests; and high-altitude forests composed largely of hardy evergreens such as firs. These habitats are similar to those found in other temperate regions, including the United States. Elsen spent four months on foot scouting locations in the Himalayas for his research. He needed relatively undisturbed habitats on continuous elevational gradients ascending the mountainside; at the same time, Elsen had to be able to walk the terrain while burdened with camping and scientific equipment. He spent April-June of 2013 and 2014 trekking across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand collecting data. Elsen, along with co-author and lead field assistant Ramnarayan Kalyanaraman of the Himal Prakriti nature trust in Uttarakhand, recorded the presence and abundance of bird species as well as the habitat and temperature (using monitoring equipment he set up for the duration of the study). Co-author Krishnamurthy Ramesh from the Wildlife Institute of India acted as Elsen's adviser in India and assisted with permits and logistics. The Himalayas exhibit a remarkable diversity of birds, Elsen said—nearly 10 percent of the world's bird species live there for at least part of the year. Uniquely, the diversity of Himalayan birds increases two-fold as one moves from west to east, he said. Because of that, Elsen and his field assistants were able to isolate and analyze competition as a mechanism for species distribution. The eastern Himalayas have more species and therefore a higher number of potential competitors than the western Himalayas. Thus, if species are limited by competition, birds that occur in both the east and the west should occupy a narrower band of elevation toward the eastern part of their geographic range, Elsen said. But the researchers found that more than three-fourths of species lived side-by-side with their presumed competitors. On the other hand, nearly half of the bird species studied had their elevational ranges determined by temperature or habitat. "Species are actually able to coexist with what we expected to be their dominant competitors," Elsen said. "The numbers of species limited by temperature and habitat, however, are much larger than previous studies from other parts of the world have reported. The significance is that temperature is going to play a much more important role in establishing future distributions than we previously thought." Trevor Price, a professor of biology at the University of Chicago, said that the robust data the researchers provide convincingly portray temperature and habitat as significant determinants of range, not just in the Himalayas but possibly much more broadly. "One of the extremely impressive things about this study is that they managed to document all these bird distributions," said Price, who is familiar with the research but had no role in it. "I think the results are fascinating, and an important contribution. Their results are very general and it would be worth trying to replicate them elsewhere. I really don't think systems are that different around the world," he said. "Theoreticians can use these data to model how we think climate change will affect ranges. As the temperature moves up the mountain, the birds will likely move with it." Yet the findings show that no one factor guides species ranges the world over, Price said. Just as the study found that competition is not universally applicable, the strong influence of temperature in the Himalayas suggests that other factors such as rainfall and parasites might govern species' territories in other parts of the world. "This clearly shows a role for temperature, but it's very difficult to apportion the effects among all the different things that could be going on. I actually believe that temperature is among many factors—indeed, temperature and precipitation are likely to also affect where prey and other resources are located, thereby indirectly affecting these birds," Price said. "The background data they have now will set the stage for much more rigorous analyses," he said. "Ultimately, we are going to need more detailed studies to ask how the various factors interact. The bottom line is that there has got to be a combination of all these factors at work—there can't just be one." The paper, "The role of competition, ecotones and temperature in the elevational distribution of Himalayan birds," was published in the February 2017 edition of Ecology. Explore further: Reshaping mountains in the human mind to save species facing climate change


Found on a herb bush, a toad of only 24 mm average length, measured from its snout tip to its cloaca, was quick to make its discoverers consider its status as a new species. After identifying its unique morphological and skeletal characters, and conducting a molecular phylogenetic analysis, not only did Dr. Aggarwal, Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology, Dr. Vaudevan, Wildlife Institute of India and Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered Species along with their team, introduce a new species, but also added a new genus. The new 'Andaman bush toad', as its proposed common name is, is described in a paper published in the open-access journal ZooKeys. With its significantly smaller size when compared to its relatives, the new toad species seems to have had its name predetermined by nature. After naming its genus after the initiator of herpetological studies in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the first Curator of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Edward Blyth, the species name was derived from the local epithet 'beryet', referring to 'small frog' in Andamanese. As a result, the toad was named Blythophryne beryet. "We believe that the Great Andamanese knew of the existence of this small arboreal anuran," the scientists explained their choice. "We hope the nomen we coin here will also raise awareness about the dwindling, indigenous tribal populations in the Andamans, their culture and extinction of their tribal languages." The herein described toad species occupies mostly evergreen forests across five of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, India. Although highly abundant, this is probably because of its narrow range of distribution. Being active at night, the little amphibian can be regularly seen all year round, rested on the leaf surface of herb bushes. During daytime, it tends to hide under leaf litter on the forest floor. It is also characterised by reddish brown colouration, complete with two feeble dark brown inverted 'V'-shaped markings. Because of its severely fragmented population, restricted to no more than 10 locations, its conservation status is regarded as 'Endangered' based on the IUCN. Additional threats to the so far monotypic genus and its habitat are also posed by human activity and invasive fauna. Explore further: A new toad from the 'warm valleys' of Peruvian Andes More information: S. R. Chandramouli et al. A new genus and species of arboreal toad with phytotelmonous larvae, from the Andaman Islands, India (Lissamphibia, Anura, Bufonidae), ZooKeys (2016). DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.555.6522


Dobriyal P.,Wildlife Institute of India | Qureshi A.,Wildlife Institute of India | Badola R.,Wildlife Institute of India | Hussain S.A.,Wildlife Institute of India
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012

The maintenance of elevated soil moisture is an important ecosystem service of the natural ecosystems. Understanding the patterns of soil moisture distribution is useful to a wide range of agencies concerned with the weather and climate, soil conservation, agricultural production and landscape management. However, the great heterogeneity in the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and the lack of standard methods to estimate this property limit its quantification and use in research. This literature based review aims to (i) compile the available knowledge on the methods used to estimate soil moisture at the landscape level, (ii) compare and evaluate the available methods on the basis of common parameters such as resource efficiency, accuracy of results and spatial coverage and (iii) identify the method that will be most useful for forested landscapes in developing countries. On the basis of the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods reviewed we conclude that the direct method (gravimetric method) is accurate and inexpensive but is destructive, slow and time consuming and does not allow replications thereby having limited spatial coverage. The suitability of indirect methods depends on the cost, accuracy, response time, effort involved in installation, management and durability of the equipment. Our review concludes that measurements of soil moisture using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) methods are instantaneously obtained and accurate. GPR may be used over larger areas (up to 500 × 500. m a day) but is not cost-effective and difficult to use in forested landscapes in comparison to TDR. This review will be helpful to researchers, foresters, natural resource managers and agricultural scientists in selecting the appropriate method for estimation of soil moisture keeping in view the time and resources available to them and to generate information for efficient allocation of water resources and maintenance of soil moisture regime. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Aim: To understand the relative importance of ecological and biogeographical processes structuring assemblages of Himalayan leaf warblers (family Phylloscopidae), through an evaluation of (1) the patterns of species richness and phylogenetic community structure, (2) their environmental determinants, and (3) dispersion of morphological traits within communities. Location: Elevational gradients across the east and the west Himalayas, India. Methods: Species presences were assessed at 16 sites along eight elevational gradients. Phylogenetic conservatism was assessed in three functional morphological traits (body size, tarsus length, beak shape) and phylogenetic structure in terms of the net relatedness index (NRI) was quantified using a published phylogenetic tree. Site-specific species richness and NRI were related to climatic variables and arthropod abundance. Morphological trait metrics were also calculated and the observed trait dispersion related to patterns of species richness and phylogenetic structure of the assemblages. Results: The 16 assemblages, composed of two to eight species, ran the entire spectrum of significance in terms of their phylogenetic structure, resulting in many clustered assemblages at low elevations and a few overdispersed assemblages at higher elevations. Phylogenetic structure was not significantly correlated with species richness, although variation in both was largely explained by maximum temperature and arthropod abundance. At the regional scale, both trait filtering (beak shape) and trait convergence (tarsus length) seem to influence the distribution of species along the elevational gradients. Dispersion of body size metrics suggested filtering and competition as predicted by phylogenetic structure, while beak shape metrics suggested competitive interactions even in phylogenetically clustered assemblages. Main conclusions: The interaction of multiple assembly processes (competition, filtering and history) appears to structure the Himalayan leaf warbler assemblages. Phylogenetic community structure largely reflected the biogeographical history of species accumulation into the Himalayas, while processes structuring local assemblages were better explained by the dispersion of traits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Venkataraman M.,Wildlife Institute of India
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

The resurrection of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) from the brink of extinction is a remarkable conservation success story. Yet, occurrence of lions as a single population makes them vulnerable to extinction from genetic and environmental factors. Asiatic lions exist as a single free ranging population of 360 individuals in Gir Protected Area (PA; about 290 lions) and surrounding satellite areas (68 lions), namely Girnar Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS), coastal areas, hill ranges extending from Mitiyala-Savarkundla-Palitana-Shihor spreading across Junagadh, Amreli and Bhavnagar districts of Gujarat State, India. This paper traces the conservation history, current conservation pressures, and critically evaluates current conservation planning based on lion ecology and existing anthropogenic pressures. Conservation proposals for translocation of lions to alternate habitats in Kuno WLS and Barda WLS are awaiting final implementation. An alternate initiative is aimed at developing satellite lion habitats, improving corridor connectivity, and facilitating natural dispersal and expansion of lion habitats. The paper evaluates human population living within 2 km boundary of lion habitats and between Gir PA and satellite habitats to show that dispersing lions have to cross heavily populated habitations taking refuge in agriculture fields and scattered forest patches. Satellite habitats vary in size from 18 km2 (Mitiyala WLS) to 250 km2 (scattered forests Hipavadli-Savarkundla-Palitana zone along Shetrunji river) and are inadequate to maintain natural ranging and movement requirements of territorial lions. These habitats are varied in vegetation, terrain, human pressure, and distance to source population. Though satellite lion habitats are important suboptimal habitats for dispersing lions, long-term conservation planning require planned restoration of mosaic habitats for growing populations. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Ghosh-Harihar M.,Wildlife Institute of India | Price T.D.,University of Chicago
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2014

The idea that ecological communities are unsaturated is central to many explanations for regional gradients in species diversity. We describe a test for differing degrees of saturation across a regional diversity gradient, based on within-species geographical variation in ecological attributes. If communities in species-poor regions are less saturated than communities in species-rich regions, species that straddle both regions should have broader niches in species-poor regions, exploiting resources that are consumed by other species in species-rich regions. We studied 10 species of Old World leaf warblers that range across the Himalayas. Elevational range and feeding method showed niche contractions in the species-poor north-west Himalayas with respect to the species-rich south-east Himalayas, whereas prey size did not vary geographically. Niche contractions are contrary to the expectation of character release in depauperate environments, as has been shown, for example in mainland-island comparisons. We show that arthropod abundances are likely a limiting resource, and that niche contractions are consistent with measurements of a narrowing of resource availability. Results suggest that north-western warbler communities are at least as saturated as the south-east and that lower resource diversity drives reduced species numbers. © 2013 British Ecological Society.


Pal P.,Wildlife Institute of India
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

The Rhino have existed on top of the globe intended for more than 40 million years and contain a wonderful record. The surviving Rhinos are precious representatives of the splendid heritage and history of the Rhino family unit taking place our earth. The viable utilization of Rhinos in Africa as well as Asia is immobile ongoing as this animal carries horn appeal its worth akin to gold. Seeing as last 35 years poaching has caused death of a lot of Rhino into this earth and has show the way every one the species of Rhino into struggle for existence. According to the CITES the three of the five species, the black rhino(Diceros bicornis), Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) are slowly and steadily becoming critically endangered. Presently the black rhino and white rhino are two of the most charismatic mega herbivores left on our planet and have became the flagship species of International conservation. The greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), scheduled as endangered species by IUCN and on Appendix I of CITES, has now been cramped hooked on a small number of confined populace adding together about 3000 animal in several parks in India and Nepal. At present Kaziranga National Park ( KNP), Assam is a significant conservation values of world's largest Indian or greater One-horned Asian rhinoceros. Asiatic wild buffalo and Eastern Swamp deer population. Subsequent to concerning 100 years of protection, the Kaziranga at the present hold up a possible population of 2329 rhinos by means of 5.65% an animal increase rate . The usual density of the rhino is 3.65/sq.km with highest density of 9.25rhinos/sq.km. in the western range of KNP. The populace of one rhino into the appearance two-third of their whole populace within the entire earth. According to specialist the bulk of tigers at Kaziranga is 32.64 tigers for each 100 sq.km. The uppermost into several know tiger habitat. Kaziranga is one of the main territory of protected terrain in the sub-Himalayan girdle, and owing in the direction of the company of extremely assorted and noticeable species, has been described as a "biodiversity hotspot". The Park has been complete and intended by means of divide national park rank to make available comprehensive environment for increasing the population of wildlife or, as a corridor for secure association of animals to Karbi Anglong Hills. The park is situated in the Indomalaya ecozone, and the most important biomes of the region are Brahmaputra Valley semi- evergreen forests of the tropical and subtropical mist broad leaf forests biome and a regularly flooded alternative of the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands of the tropical and subtropical grasslands savannas, and shrub lands biome. The Park has been shaped by means of alluvial deposit of Brahmaputra river and is a assortment of grasses interspersed by means of tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests and beels which create the area appropriate for rhino. Poaching , Erosion, encroachment, flood, siltation and Invasive species, however, are the major problems in Kaziranga's one -homed rhinoceros conservation. This paper aim of this arrangement is to evaluate the present condition of inhabitants, surroundings and conservation problems and to build up a comprehensive plan intended for the upkeep and management of rhino eternity.


Harihar A.,University of Kent | Harihar A.,Wildlife Institute of India | Pandav B.,Wildlife Institute of India
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009-10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km2), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape. © 2012 Harihar, Pandav.

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