Fukushima M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies |
Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center |
Kaeriyama M.,Hokkaido University
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2011
The Sakhalin taimen Parahucho perryi is an endangered salmonid with a natural range limited to the Russian Far East and Japan. We constructed a classification tree to determine the environmental factors shaping the historical global distribution of this species and then predicted its potential geographic range. The distribution wasmost strongly influenced by a spatial autocorrelation term, indicating that it is highly contiguous. Large drainage basins with low topographic relief and large floodplains had a higher probability of taimen occurrence. The boundary of the global distribution was delineated by mean monthly precipitation within the range of 54-96 mm. The presence of Sakhalin taimen was predicted in many drainage basins where it has never been recorded. We also modeled the status of 48 taimen populations in Japan, where it was possible to classify them into three categories: currently stable (7), endangered (5), and extinct (36). The most significant factor differentiating the 12 extant populations from the 36 extinct populations was mean annual air temperature, the extant populations being distributed exclusively in areas where the air temperature is below 5.2°C and agricultural development is minimal. The extant populations were found in drainages with significantly lower elevations and a smaller percentage of farmland compared with drainages where populations have been extirpated. The presence of lagoons was a common characteristic of the drainages with the 7 stable populations, suggesting that lagoons represent critical refugia for the species. The implications of this study for taimen conservation are discussed. © American Fisheries Society 2011.
News Article | December 15, 2016
LOS ANGELES--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The board of directors of the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation announced today that it approved 27 grants totaling $35.7 million during the fourth quarter of 2016, which brings the amount of grants awarded for 2016 to more than $111 million, which surpasses the amount of grants awarded in 2015. The Foundation also approved a new strategic approach for the Hilton Foundation’s Children Affected by HIV and AIDS program area, which will officially commence on January 1, 2017. Over the past year, the Foundation has been working to reflect on lessons learned together with partners and stakeholders in order to make modifications to its grantmaking strategy for the Children Affected by HIV and AIDS Strategic Initiative. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were used as a guiding framework and determined how best to contribute the Foundation’s relatively limited philanthropic dollars to this ambitious call to action. Over the next five years, the Foundation’s Young Children Affected by HIV and AIDS program area will field test approaches to delivering effective, quality programming that has the potential to improve developmental outcomes for young children (0-5 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives will be to: “We are pleased to end the year with an announcement of $35.7 million in funds to organizations all over the world,” said Peter Laugharn, president and CEO of the Hilton Foundation. “We are confident that the new strategy for our Children Affected by HIV and AIDS program area will strengthen the work of our partners with the ultimate goal of improving developmental outcomes for all young children affected by HIV and AIDS in five key countries in Eastern and Southern Africa.” Grants in the fourth quarter of 2016 were awarded to a total of 27 organizations spanning across the Hilton Foundation’s priority areas, including organizations serving the most disadvantaged and vulnerable people both in the U.S. and internationally. Following is an overview of all grants awarded in the fourth quarter of 2016: Children Affected by HIV and AIDS – Aga Khan Foundation USA was awarded $1.5 million to build capacity of the early childhood development workforce in high HIV prevalence communities East and Southern Africa, while Alliance for Open Society International Inc. was awarded $500,000 to support the Global Partnership for Education's efforts to establish the Better Early Learning and Development at Scale Initiative. Finally, Catholic Relief Services was given a grant in the amount of $400,000 for planning a phase two program to strengthen the ability of Catholic Sisters to meet the developmental needs of children affected by HIV and AIDS. Safe Water – $3 million was awarded to Water for People to implement the model of Everyone Forever for sustainable water services in Kamwenge District of Uganda. $1 million was granted to IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre to create the foundation for an ambitious learning and collective action initiative that will catalyze development of SDG 6 in Burkina Faso, Niger and Uganda. Stanford University received a grant in the amount of $435,000 to facilitate the design of a monitoring, evaluation, and learning framework and theory of change for the Foundation's Safe Water strategy. Finally, Water.org will receive $200,000 to build the foundation necessary to implement a WaterCredit model in Ghana. Avoidable Blindness – Three grants were awarded to organizations working towards elimination of trachoma as a public health problem in Mali and Niger. The Carter Center was granted $5.1 million, and $5.975 million was awarded to Helen Keller International for this effort. Sightsavers, Inc. was awarded $650,000 to contribute to the elimination of trachoma in Mali. Foster Youth – The John Burton Foundation received $600,000 to strengthen the high school to college transition process for foster youth in Los Angeles County. Additionally, the National Center for Youth Law was granted $1.6 million to support the development of a collective impact campaign that will increase access to reproductive and sexual health care, and information to significantly reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies among foster youth in Los Angeles County. Finally, $1 million was awarded to the New York Foundling for educational support for foster youth from eighth grade through college through the Road to Success Program. Homelessness – Brilliant Corners received a grant in the amount of $1.2 million to support capacity-building and strategic planning to ensure the continued expansion and implementation of Los Angeles County's Flexible Housing Subsidy Pool. Corporation for Supportive Housing was awarded $3 million to invest in the Just In Reach Pay For Success program, a partnership with the Los Angeles County Health Agency to connect frequent users of the homeless system and Los Angeles County Jail with permanent supportive housing. $300,000 was awarded to Housing California to support the development of a coordinated, cross-sector policy effort aimed at increasing state funding for permanent supportive housing for chronically homeless individuals in California. Substance Use Prevention – School-Based Health Alliance was awarded $1 million to support a second phase of work to implement youth Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in school-based health clinics. The Addiction Medicine Foundation received a grant in the amount of $1 million to continue efforts to increase the number of physicians trained in prevention and early intervention and addiction medicine. Multiple Sclerosis – The University of California, San Francisco received a grant in the amount of $900,000 to continue development of the Bioscreen, a precision medicine disease management tool for those with Multiple Sclerosis. Catholic Sisters – The Catholic Volunteer Network was awarded $1.7 million to expand the work of the organization’s From Service to Sisterhood initiative, a program that connects congregations of sisters with lay-women volunteers. $780,000 was granted to Leadership Conference of Women Religious to provide support for the expansion of the Leadership Pathways program to include a focus on the dramatic transitions and transformations that are facing religious life today. A grant in the amount of $500,000 was awarded to the Conrad N. Hilton Fund for Sisters to establish a special fund within the Conrad N. Hilton Fund for Sisters to augment its support of canonical leadership conferences globally. Saint Leo University was granted $420,000 to develop and pilot an online certificate-granting program for SLDI alumnae and other Catholic sisters in Africa. Finally, Catholic Theological Union at Chicago was granted $360,000 to support the development and implementation of a 30-month curriculum designed to prepare and accompany of core team from 25 religious communities to serve as the catalyst and resource to guide their communities through practices around interculturality. Catholic Education – The Catholic Education Foundation was granted $1 million to support tuition assistance for low-income students attending Catholic schools within the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. Finally, a grant in the amount of $900,000 was awarded to Casa Pacifica Centers for Children & Families to support the Building New Foundations of Hope capital campaign, and Wild Salmon Center was granted $700,000 to support the North Pacific Salmon Stronghold Initiative ($500,000) and to provide general operating support ($200,000). For more detailed information on our grantmaking, please visit hiltonfoundation.org/grants. The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation was created in 1944 by international business pioneer Conrad N. Hilton, who founded Hilton Hotels and left his fortune to help the world’s disadvantaged and vulnerable people. The Foundation currently conducts strategic initiatives in six priority areas: providing safe water, ending chronic homelessness, preventing substance use, helping children affected by HIV and AIDS, supporting transition-age youth in foster care, and extending Conrad Hilton’s support for the work of Catholic Sisters. In addition, following selection by an independent international jury, the Foundation annually awards the $2 million Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize to a nonprofit organization doing extraordinary work to reduce human suffering. In 2016, the Humanitarian Prize was awarded to The Task Force for Global Health, an international, nonprofit organization that works to improve health of people most in need, primarily in developing countries. From its inception, the Foundation has awarded more than $1.4 billion in grants, distributing $107 million in the U.S. and around the world in 2015. The Foundation’s current assets are approximately $2.5 billion. For more information, please visit www.hiltonfoundation.org.
Pyper B.J.,Cramer Fish science |
Cramer S.P.,Cramer Fish science |
Ericksen R.P.,Cramer Fish science |
Ericksen R.P.,Wild Salmon Center |
Sitts R.M.,Cramer Fish science
Marine and Coastal Fisheries | Year: 2012
The need to protect imperiled salmon stocks along the Pacific coast of North America has led to an increasing use of mark-selective fisheries (MSFs) as a management strategy to reduce harvest mortality of wild salmon while allowing harvest of abundant hatchery salmon. However, MSFs remain untested in ocean fisheries for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha off the coasts of California and Oregon, where hatchery fish have been estimated to compose the majority of Chinook salmon but where harvests have been restricted to protect several imperiled stocks. We developed a quantitative framework based on conventional cohort models to examine how aggregate ocean harvest and in-river escapement of Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon, the numerically dominant stock in the region, would have differed under MSF scenarios compared with the historic, traditional fishery. At historic contact rates (fishing effort) for 1988-2007, we estimated that annual in-river escapement of natural-origin fish would have increased by 119% on average under MSF scenarios, while reductions in harvest would have been inversely proportional to the fraction of hatchery-origin fish. During the more recent period of constrained fishing (2001-2007), we estimated MSF outcomes for a range of plausible contact rates (40-60% of age-4 fish) and hatchery fractions (40-80% of Chinook salmon). The combination of these factors determined the magnitude of estimated harvest reductions or gains underMSFs, with totalMSF harvest (2001-2007) ranging from 46% lower to 48% higher than historic harvest. Increases in total escapement of natural-origin fish (2001-2007) underMSFs ranged from 24% to 48% depending on the contact rate. Comparisons between the traditional fishery and simulated MSF outcomes were robust to a wide range of cohort parameter values, suggesting that our aggregate results provide useful insights into potential MSF outcomes and the effects of key uncertainties. © American Fisheries Society 2012.
Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center |
Berejikian B.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Bidlack A.,Cordova |
Bottom D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
And 9 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012
Advances in salmon culture practices during the latter part of the 20 th century provided the opportunity for mass production of juvenile salmon. Hatchery-produced salmon currently outnumber wild salmon in some regions around the Pacific Rim, raising concerns about their ecological impacts on wild salmon. We convened five regional sessions at an international conference to identify and discuss issues related to ecological interactions between wild and hatchery salmon. Session participants were charged with identifying key interaction types by salmon life stage. Each group was asked to summarize key research needs and identify management actions that might be needed to reduce risks from hatchery programs. Some common themes emerged in all the sessions, including the importance of predation and competition interactions in freshwater environments during juvenile life stages and breeding interactions among adults. Much less is understood about interactions in estuarine and marine ecosystems, even though these environments may be critical in determining recruitment success. Some groups identified a need for field experiments to test hypotheses related to ecological interactions and the need to understand and, where possible, control hatchery straying. Some groups also discussed the importance of carrying capacity in different environments and how hatchery programs may be contributing to density-dependent effects. There is a lack of focused studies on ecological interactions between wild and hatchery salmon in the Western Pacific. The authors of this paper hope to encourage new research efforts to better understand ecological interactions to help inform management efforts aimed at reducing hatchery risks to wild salmon. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Zimmerman C.E.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center |
Fukushima M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies |
Zolotukhin S.F.,TINRO Center
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012
Sakhalin taimen (Parahucho perryi) range from the Russian Far East mainland along the Sea of Japan coast, and Sakhalin, Kuril, and Hokkaido Islands and are considered to primarily be an anadromous species. We used otolith strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) to determine the chronology of migration between freshwater and saltwater and identify migratory contingents of taimen collected from the Koppi River, Russia. In addition, we examined taimen from the Sarufutsu River, Japan and Tumnin River, Russia that were captured in marine waters. Transects of otolith Sr/Ca for the Sarufutsu River fish were consistent with patterns observed in anadromous salmonids. Two fish from the Tumnin River appeared to be recent migrants to saltwater and one fish was characterized by an otolith Sr/Ca transect consistent with marine migration. Using these transects as benchmarks, all Koppi River taimen were classified as freshwater residents. These findings suggest more work is needed to assess life history variability among locations and the role of freshwater productivity in controlling migratory behavior in taimen. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).
Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center |
Fukushima M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2014
Sakhalin taimen Parahucho perryi, an east Asian fish noted to be one of the largest salmonids in the world, is threatened throughout its range in northern Japan and neighboring Russian Federation. We report here on the first effort to enumerate and characterize the spawning run of a river population. We applied sonar and video methods in a tributary of the Sarufutsu River in Hokkaido, Japan, and evaluated environmental controls on migration. Over two years we estimated the tributary population to range from 335 to 425. We found passage rate by our site to increase with temperature and decrease with river discharge, and migratory cues were reinforced by strong diel fluctuations in environmental conditions. Finally, we report evidence of males arriving early to the spawning grounds in this species. Given our results and data on the recreational fishery, we conclude that a substantial number of individuals in the population are affected by angling, underscoring the need to establish fishing regulations. Further, our study indicates passage success can vary over the migration period, and efforts at modifying or removing impediments, and devoting more research to factors controlling passage, could ultimately improve the status of this species. © 2014 The Authors.
Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center
PloS one | Year: 2012
Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.
PubMed | Wild Salmon Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology | Year: 2012
Freshwater ecosystems are declining in quality globally, but a lack of data inhibits identification of areas valuable for conservation across national borders. We developed a biological measure of conservation value for six species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in catchments of the northern Pacific across Canada, China, Japan, Russia, and the United States. We based the measure on abundance and life-history richness and a model-based method that filled data gaps. Catchments with high conservation value ranged from California to northern Russia and included catchments in regions that are strongly affected by human development (e.g., Puget Sound). Catchments with high conservation value were less affected by agriculture and dams than other catchments, although only 1% were within biodiversity reserves. Our set of high-value areas was largely insensitive to simulated error, although classification remained uncertain for 3% of catchments. Although salmon face many threats, we propose they will be most likely to exhibit resilience into the future if a complementary mosaic of conservation strategies can be proactively adopted in catchments with healthy salmon populations. Our analysis provides an initial map of where these catchments are likely to be located.
PubMed | Pacific Northwest Research Station and Wild Salmon Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global change biology | Year: 2016
In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream networks will hamper efforts to understand and mitigate the vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to climate-induced hydrologic change.
PubMed | Wild Salmon Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012
Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon.We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions.Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.