Wild Flower, South Korea
Wild Flower, South Korea

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Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Park S.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Son B.-G.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

This study made jelly by adding Sansuyu (Corni Fructus) puree and examined the types and contents of gelling agents as well as the physicochemical characteristics of jelly depending on heating time. Water content of Sansuyu puree was 89.39%, pH was 2.92, sugar content was 10.28°Brix, and total polyphenol content was 1,791.71 mg GAE/100 g. As the added amount of Sansuyu puree increased, pH decreased slightly from 3.04 to 2.97, and yield stress decreased greatly. As heating time increased, red color was unstable and changed to yellow. When heated more than 5 min, jelly was not formed. The level of preference for jelly consisting of 10% Sansuyu puree, 1.5% agar, and 1.0% carrageenan was the highest at 5.15. Using pulp of Sansuyu, it will be possible to make jelly consisting of various bioactive substances. © 2017, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Kang H.-J.,Korea University | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Park N.-J.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Go G.-B.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | And 5 more authors.
BioScience Trends | Year: 2017

Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine for centuries to treat cough, asthma, insect bites, etc. Recent reports indicate that A. yomena possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities; however, few experiments have described its anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of A. yomena leaves (EEAY) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with EEAY significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as nitric oxide and interleukin-1ß, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, without incurring any significant cytotoxicity. These protective effects were accompanied by a marked reduction in the expression of regulatory genes at the transcription level. Treatment with EEAY also inhibited the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by suppression of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and by degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB; these effects were associated with suppression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogenactivated protein kinase signaling pathways. The EEAY treatment also potently suppressed LPS-induced toll like receptor (TLR) 4 expression and attenuated the binding of LPS to the macrophage cell surface. In addition, EEAY treatment markedly inhibited LPSinduced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of EEAY on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages were apparently associated with suppression of the TLR-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. More work is needed to fully understand the critical role and clinical usefulness of EEAY treatment, but the findings of the present study provide some insights into the potential of EEAY as a therapeutic agent for treatment of inflammatory disorders.


Jeong J.-S.,Korea University | Jeong J.-W.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jung Y.-K.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2016

The Kalopanax septemlobus leaf (Thunb.) Koidz. has been used as a traditional medicine herb for the treatment of various human diseases for hundreds of years. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of an ethanol extract of K. septemlobus leaf (EEKS) on proliferation of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether HepG2 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS concentration-dependently reduced cell survival while significantly increasing the ratio of apoptotic cells. EEKS treatment increased the levels of the death receptors (DRs), DR4 and DR5, and activated caspases, as well as promoting proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase associated with the downregulation of protein expression of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family. Treatment with EEKS also caused truncation of Bid, translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. However, treatment of HepG2 cells with a pan-caspase inhibitor reversed EEKS-induced apoptosis and growth suppression, indicating that EEKS appears to induce apoptosis though a caspase-dependent mechanism involving both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was elevated when cells were exposed to EEKS. A specific inhibitor for AMPK attenuated the EEKS-induced activation of caspases, and consequently prevented the EEKS-induced apoptosis and reduction in cell viability. Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS inhibits the growth of HepG2 cells by inducing AMPK-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of EEKS in the treatment or prevention of cancers.


PubMed | Dong - A University, Korea University, Jeju National University, Gurye gun Agricultural Center and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of oncology | Year: 2015

The Kalopanax septemlobus leaf (Thunb.) Koidz. has been used as a traditional medicine herb for the treatment of various human diseases for hundreds of years. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of an ethanol extract of K. septemlobus leaf (EEKS) on proliferation of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether HepG2 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS concentration-dependently reduced cell survival while significantly increasing the ratio of apoptotic cells. EEKS treatment increased the levels of the death receptors (DRs), DR4 and DR5, and activated caspases, as well as promoting proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase associated with the downregulation of protein expression of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family. Treatment with EEKS also caused truncation of Bid, translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, thereby inducing the release of cytochromec into the cytosol. However, treatment of HepG2 cells with a pan-caspase inhibitor reversed EEKS-induced apoptosis and growth suppression, indicating that EEKS appears to induce apoptosis though a caspase-dependent mechanism involving both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was elevated when cells were exposed to EEKS. A specific inhibitor for AMPK attenuated the EEKS-induced activation of caspases, and consequently prevented the EEKS-induced apoptosis and reduction in cell viability. Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS inhibits the growth of HepG2 cells by inducing AMPK-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of EEKS in the treatment or prevention of cancers.


Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Park N.-J.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Go G.-B.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Son B.-G.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study investigated changes in physicochemical characteristics by drying and fermentation in order to utilize Actinidia arguta. Moisture content of A. arguta was 85.81%. Major sugar and organic acids were sucrose, succinic acid, and citric acid. A. arguta contained 19 kinds of amino acids, including 8 kinds of essential amino acids such as valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and lysine. For total organic acids, sample fermented for 17 h at 50°C under a relative humidity of 80% showed 29,026.53 mg/100 g total organic acids. For total free sugars, cold-dried sample showed the highest level at 6,560.86 mg/100 g, which decreased to 2,386.73 mg/100 g after blanching. For the ratio of essential amino acids, freeze-dried sample showed a content of 11.66%, which increased 4-fold up to 40.71∼55.50% with fermentation. Both GABA and vitamin U were highest after 17 h of fermentation (110.29 mg and 6.78 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively). A. arguta contains a variety of free amino acids that increase in amount after fermentation and thus is expected to be developed as a functional food and substitute tea. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Park S.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Lee G.-E.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Corni fructus is often distributed or processed in the form of dried fruit. However, Corni fructus is hard to develop due to its distinctive sour, bitter, and astringent taste. The aim of this study was to develop a puree to broaden the utilization of fresh Corni fructus. Manufacturing and quality characteristics of Sansuyu jam made from puree were investigated. Seeded Corni fructus pulp consisted of 20 to 26% whole fruit. The moisture and sugar contents of pulp were 52∼63% and 15∼31°Brix, respectively. Sterilized distilled water was added to seeded pulp to achieve a constant solids content in the puree. As the pectin content was low as 0.14±0.01%, gelling agent was added to produce jam. The moisture content of the puree increased to 83∼88%. The sugar content was reduced to 10°Brix. There was no significant difference in pH. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the puree according to ripening rate at a concentration of 100 ppm were 47.92% and 50.96%, respectively. The preference degree was 5.03±0.97 at a ripening ratio of 50:50, 2% pectin, and 0.2% carrageenan. These results imply that Corni fructus pulp puree may be appropriate for development as a natural food product. © 2016, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Kim Y.-J.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye Wild Flower Institute | Jeong J.-S.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | Kim E.-H.,Gurye gun Agricultural Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Aster yomena is a perennial plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. Seasoned wild vegetables are commonly used as functional ingredients because of their bioactive effects against oxidation, cancer, and inflammation. A recent report showed that ethanol extracts from Aster yomena effectively inhibited gene expression related to lipid accumulation within interstitial cells to prevent obesity, further raising awareness of its usefulness as a highly functional ingredient. Several studies have investigated Aster yomena, but none have investigated the effects of processing on its use. Therefore, this study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidative activity of breads in which refined salt was replaced with Aster yomena powder at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0%. Bread containing any amount of Aster yomena powder did not differ significantly from the control in terms of appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and overall preference. In addition, higher levels of added Aster yomena powder were associated with greater 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity indicating the potential for production of highly functional bread and noodle products using this material. © 2016, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.

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