Boyce R.W.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2010
In regulatory toxicology studies, qualitative histopathological evaluation is the reference standard for assessment of test article-related morphological changes. In certain cases, quantitative analysis may be required to detect more subtle morphological changes, such as small changes in cell number. When the detection of subtle test article-related morphological changes is critical to the decision-making process, sensitive quantitative methods are needed. Design-based stereology provides the tools for obtaining accurate, precise quantitative structural data from tissue sections. These tools have the sensitivity necessary to detect small changes by combining statistical sampling principles with geometric analysis of the tissue microstructure. It differs from other morphometric methods based on tissue section analysis by providing estimates that are statistically valid, truly three-dimensional, and referent to the entire organ. Further, because the precision of the stereological analysis procedure can be predicted, studies can be designed and powered to detect subtle, potentially toxicologically significant changes. Although stereological methods have not been widely applied in toxicologic pathology, recent advances have made it feasible to implement these methods in a regulatory toxicology setting, particularly methods for estimation of total cell number.
Thomas J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
Fishovitz J.,Case Western Reserve University |
Lee I.,Case Western Reserve University
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2010
Lon protease, also known as protease La, is an ATP-dependent serine protease. Despite the presence of a proteolytic Ser-Lys dyad, the enzyme only catalyzes protein degradation in the presence of ATP. Lon possesses an intrinsic ATPase activity that is stimulated by protein and certain peptide substrates. Through sequence alignment and analysis, it is concluded that Lon belongs to the AAA+ protein family. Previous kinetic characterization of the ATPase domain of Escherichia coli Lon protease implicates a half-site reactivity model in which only 50% of the ATP bound to Lon are hydrolyzed to yield ADP; the remaining ATPase sites remain bound with ATP and are considered non-catalytic. In this model, it is implied that ATP hydrolysis is irreversible. To further evaluate the proposed half-site reactivity model, the reversibility of the ATPase activity of E. coli Lon was evaluated by positional isotope exchange experiments. The ATPase reactions were conducted in the 18O-enriched buffer such that the extent of 18O incorporation into inorganic phosphate generated from ATP hydrolysis could be used to evaluate the extent of reversibility in ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, our experimental data reveal that the ATPase reaction catalyzed by E. coli Lon in the presence and absence of peptide substrate that stimulated the enzyme's ATPase activity is irreversible. Therefore, the half-site ATPase reactivity of E. coli Lon is validated, and can be used to account for the kinetic mechanism of the ATP-dependent peptidase activity of the enzyme.
Boyce J.T.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2010
In certain cases, quantitative tissue structural data derived from tissue sections may be required to make critical decisions in the drug development or risk assessment process. Most frequently, these questions center on test article-related effects on cell number. In this opinion article, the limitations of estimating cell number by standard cell or nuclear profile counts from sections/blocks collected for routine histopathology are discussed from both a scientific and regulatory perspective and contrasted with the robust, sensitive, statistically based methods of design-based stereology. Specific existing industry practices are reviewed. Recent advances in stereological theory, software, hardware, and automated immunohistochemical staining now make it feasible to implement unbiased stereological methods to assess test article-related effects on cell number in a regulatory toxicology setting. These design-based stereological methods for counting cells are recommended when the quantification of small changes in cell number is critical to the risk assessment or decision-making process. These methods provide levels of sensitivity and statistical guarantees of accuracy that no other currently available tissue section-based methodology can provide.
Stump D.G.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
Radovsky A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. |
And 10 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010
This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 75, 750, and 2250 ppm daily from gestation day 0 through lactation day 21. F1 offspring were evaluated using the following tests: detailed clinical observations (postnatal days [PNDs] 4, 11, 21, 35, 45, and 60), auditory startle (PNDs 20 and 60), motor activity (PNDs 13, 17, 21, and 61), learning and memory using the Biel water maze (PNDs 22 and 62), and brain and nervous system neuropathology and brain morphometry (PNDs 21 and 72). For F1 offspring, there were no treatment-related neurobehavioral effects, nor was there evidence of neuropathology or effects on brain morphometry. Based on maternal and offspring body weight reductions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 75 ppm (5.85 and 13.1 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively), with no treatment-related effects at lower doses or nonmonotonic dose responses observed for any parameter. There was no evidence that BPA is a developmental neurotoxicant in rats, and the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity was 2250 ppm, the highest dose tested (164 and 410 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively). © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.
Biesemeier J.A.,Chemtura Corporation |
Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
Silberberg H.,ICL Inc |
Myers N.R.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC |
And 7 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2010
The effects of route and vehicle on blood and milk levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE; CASRN 1163-19-5) were investigated in the rat to assist in the design and conduct of a developmental neurotoxicity study. Blood plasma and/or milk concentrations were determined in dams, fetuses, and/or nursing pups after repeated DecaBDE administration by gavage throughout gestation or gestation and lactation using corn oil (CO) or soyaphospholipon/ Lutrol F 127-water (SPL) as the vehicle. The impact of vehicle on plasma levels was also investigated in pups derived from naive dams after a single postnatal dose. This study reports for the first time fetal and neonatal plasma concentrations concurrent with those of maternal plasma and/or milk. Higher concentrations of DecaBDE were achieved in plasma and in milk with CO than with SPL. Furthermore, pups derived from dams treated with only SPL were lower in body weight, compared with those from dams treated with either CO, CO and DecaBDE, or SPL and DecaBDE. The study further shows that exposure to DecaBDE is relatively consistent across the dose range of 100 to 1000 mg/(kg·day) when administered in CO. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.