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Osimitz T.G.,Science Strategies LLC | Eldridge M.L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Sloter E.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Welsh W.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | And 5 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Eastman Tritan™ copolyester, a novel plastic from Eastman is manufactured utilizing three monomers, di-methylterephthalate (DMT), 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (TMCD) in various ratios. As with most any polymer, the monomers along with the high molecular weight oligomers, whose toxicity is most commonly represented by the monomers, make up the predominate amount of free chemicals available for leaching into the environment and/or foods. In light of the high level of public concern about the presence of endocrine (primarily estrogenic) activity ascribed to certain plastics and chemicals in the environment, Tritan's™ monomers were evaluated using QSAR for binding to the androgen receptor and estrogen receptors (alpha and beta) as well as a battery of in vitro and in vivo techniques to determine their potential androgenicity or estrogenicity. The findings were universally negative. When these data are coupled with other in vivo data developed to assess systemic toxicity and developmental and reproductive toxicity, the data clearly indicate that these monomers do not pose an androgenic or estrogenic risk to humans. Additional data presented also support such a conclusion for terephthalic acid (TPA). TPA is also a common polyester monomer and is the main mammalian metabolite formed from DMT. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Li A.A.,UnitedHealth Group Inc. | Fowles J.,LyondellBasell Industries | Banton M.I.,LyondellBasell Industries | Picut C.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Kirkpatrick D.T.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2012

An acute, whole-body inhalation study for allyl alcohol in Sprague-Dawley rats was designed to support derivation of AEGL values, with emphasis on establishing NOAELs for irreversible effects of different exposure concentrations and durations. Groups of 10 rats were exposed for 1 hour (0, 50, 200, or 400ppm), 4 hours (0, 20, 50, or 100ppm), or 8 hours (0, 10, 20, or 50ppm). Clinical evaluations were performed during exposure and in an open field within 2271 minutes after termination of exposure. Clinical pathology, gross necropsy, and histopathology (nasal tissues, larynx, trachea, lungs/bronchi, liver, and kidneys) were evaluated 14 days after exposure. Mortality was limited to 1 male exposed for 8 hours to 50ppm. Clinical findings of gasping, rales, increased respiration noted at higher exposure levels were rapidly reversed. No treatment-related findings were observed in the liver and kidneys, or in the lungs of surviving animals. Histopathology in the nasal cavity was noted at all exposure levels following 1, 4, or 8 hours of exposure. Mild nasal inflammation was found at the lowest exposure levels (50-ppm/1-hour, 20-ppm/4-hour, and 10-ppm/8-hour). These effects were considered reversible and were not associated with related clinical signs. Severe, irreversible nasal olfactory epithelial lesions were present in 50ppm/8-hour males. The NOELs for irreversible effects were 400-ppm/1-hour, 100-ppm/4-hour, and 20-ppm/8-hour. The incidence of severe findings was positively dependent on both concentration and the exposure duration. In contrast, the incidence of mild reversible findings did not appear to be dependent on duration. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Thomas J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Fishovitz J.,Case Western Reserve University | Lee I.,Case Western Reserve University
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Lon protease, also known as protease La, is an ATP-dependent serine protease. Despite the presence of a proteolytic Ser-Lys dyad, the enzyme only catalyzes protein degradation in the presence of ATP. Lon possesses an intrinsic ATPase activity that is stimulated by protein and certain peptide substrates. Through sequence alignment and analysis, it is concluded that Lon belongs to the AAA+ protein family. Previous kinetic characterization of the ATPase domain of Escherichia coli Lon protease implicates a half-site reactivity model in which only 50% of the ATP bound to Lon are hydrolyzed to yield ADP; the remaining ATPase sites remain bound with ATP and are considered non-catalytic. In this model, it is implied that ATP hydrolysis is irreversible. To further evaluate the proposed half-site reactivity model, the reversibility of the ATPase activity of E. coli Lon was evaluated by positional isotope exchange experiments. The ATPase reactions were conducted in the 18O-enriched buffer such that the extent of 18O incorporation into inorganic phosphate generated from ATP hydrolysis could be used to evaluate the extent of reversibility in ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, our experimental data reveal that the ATPase reaction catalyzed by E. coli Lon in the presence and absence of peptide substrate that stimulated the enzyme's ATPase activity is irreversible. Therefore, the half-site ATPase reactivity of E. coli Lon is validated, and can be used to account for the kinetic mechanism of the ATP-dependent peptidase activity of the enzyme.

Stump D.G.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Radovsky A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 75, 750, and 2250 ppm daily from gestation day 0 through lactation day 21. F1 offspring were evaluated using the following tests: detailed clinical observations (postnatal days [PNDs] 4, 11, 21, 35, 45, and 60), auditory startle (PNDs 20 and 60), motor activity (PNDs 13, 17, 21, and 61), learning and memory using the Biel water maze (PNDs 22 and 62), and brain and nervous system neuropathology and brain morphometry (PNDs 21 and 72). For F1 offspring, there were no treatment-related neurobehavioral effects, nor was there evidence of neuropathology or effects on brain morphometry. Based on maternal and offspring body weight reductions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 75 ppm (5.85 and 13.1 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively), with no treatment-related effects at lower doses or nonmonotonic dose responses observed for any parameter. There was no evidence that BPA is a developmental neurotoxicant in rats, and the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity was 2250 ppm, the highest dose tested (164 and 410 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively). © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

PubMed | Tox Path Specialists LLC, Hill International, Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc., St Jude Childrens Research Hospital and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) was assessed in two inbred strains of 9- or 16-week old male C57BL/6 mice housed in two different laboratories and compared to the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). PQ was administered by intraperitoneal injections; either once (20 mg/kg) or twice (10 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks, while MPTP-HCl was injected 4 times on a single day (20 mg/kg/dose). Brains were collected 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 or 168 hours after the last PQ treatment, and 48 or 168 hours after MPTP treatment. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were identified by antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+) and microglia were identified using Iba-1 immunoreactivity. The total number of TH+ neurons and the number of resting and activated microglia in the SNpc at 168 hours after the last dose were estimated using model- or design-based stereology, with investigators blinded to treatment. In a further analysis, a pathologist, also blinded to treatment, evaluated the SNpc and/or striatum for loss of TH+ neurons (SNpc) or terminals (striatum), cell death (as indicated by amino cupric silver uptake, TUNEL and/or caspase 3 staining) and neuroinflammation (as indicated by Iba-1 and/or GFAP staining). PQ, administered either once or twice weekly to 9- or 16-week old mice from two suppliers, had no effect on the number of TH+ neurons or microglia in the SNpc, as assessed by two groups, each blinded to treatment, using different stereological methods. PQ did not induce neuronal cell loss or degeneration in the SNpc or striatum. Additionally, there was no evidence of apoptosis, microgliosis or astrogliosis. In MPTP-treated mice, the number of TH+ neurons in the SNpc was significantly decreased and the number of activated microglia increased. Histopathological assessment found degenerating neurons/terminals in the SNpc and striatum but no evidence of apoptotic cell death. MPTP activated microglia in the SNpc and increased the number of astrocytes in the SNpc and striatum.

PubMed | Royal DSM, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., WIL Research Laboratories LLC and WIL Research Europe B.V.
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

The safety of rebaudioside A, produced fermentatively by Yarrowia lipolytica encoding the Stevia rebaudiana metabolic pathway (fermentative Reb A), is based on several elements: first, the safety of steviol glycosides has been extensively evaluated and an acceptable daily intake has been defined; second, the use of Y. lipolytica, an avirulent yeast naturally found in foods and used for multiple applications; and third the high purity of fermentative Reb A and its compliance with internationally defined specifications. A bacterial reverse mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus test conducted with fermentative Reb A provide evidence for its absence of mutagenicity, clastogenicity and aneugenicity. The oral administration of fermentative Reb A to Sprague-Dawley rats for at least 91 days did not lead to any adverse effects at consumption levels up to 2057 mg/kg bw/day for males and 2023 mg/kg bw/day for females, which were concluded to be the No Observed Adverse Effect Levels. The results were consistent with outcomes of previous studies conducted with plant-derived rebaudioside A, suggesting similar safety profiles for fermentative and plant-derived rebaudioside A. The results of the toxicity studies reported here support the safety of rebaudioside A produced fermentatively from Y. lipolytica, as a general purpose sweetener.

PubMed | St. John Fisher College, Wil Research Laboratories LLC, Akorn and Mercer University
Type: | Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society | Year: 2016

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most commonly occurring malignancy in women, with the highest mortality rate among all the gynecological tumors. Microparticulate vaccine can serve as an immunotherapeutic approach with a promising antigenic delivery system without a need for conventional adjuvants. In this study, a microparticulate vaccine using whole cell lysate of a murine ovarian cancer cell line, ID8 was prepared by spray drying. Further, the effect of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-2 and IL-12 was evaluated in a separate study group by administering them with vaccine particles to enhance the immune response. The vaccine microparticles were administered to C57BL/6 female mice via transdermal alone and in combination with the oral route. The transdermal vaccine was delivered using a metallic microneedle device, AdminPen. Orally administered microparticles also included an M-cell targeting ligand, Aleuria aurantia lectin, to enhance the targeted uptake from microfold cells (M-cells) in Peyers patches of small intestine. In case of combination of routes, mice were given 5 transdermal doses and 5 oral doses administered alternatively, beginning with transdermal dose. At the end of vaccination, mice were challenged with live tumor cells. Vaccine alone resulted in around 1.5 times tumor suppression in case of transdermal and combination of routes at the end of 15th week when compared to controls. Inclusion of interleukins resulted in 3 times tumor suppression when administered with transdermal vaccine and around 9 times tumor suppression for the combination route of delivery in comparison to controls. These results were further potentiated by serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a titers. Moreover, CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell and NK (natural killer) cell populations in splenocytes were elevated in case of vaccinated mice. Thus, vaccine microparticles could trigger humoral as well as cellular immune response when administered transdermally and via combination of route of delivery. However overall, vaccine administered with interleukins, via combination of route, was found to be the most efficacious to suppress the tumor growth and lead to a protective immune response.

Parker G.A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Picut C.A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

The liver is the primary hematopoietic organ of the mammalian body during the fetal stage. The postnatal liver retains immunologically important functions and contains a substantial population of immunologically active cells, including T and B lymphocytes, Kupffer cells, liver-adapted natural killer (NK) cells (pit cells), natural killer cells expressing T cell receptor (NKT cells), stellate cells, and dendritic cells. The liver is the major site of production of the acute phase proteins that are associated with acute inflammatory reactions. Kupffer cells have an important role in the nonspecific phagocytosis that comprises a major component of the barrier to invasion of pathogenic organisms from the intestine. Hepatic NK and NKT cells are important in the nonspecific cell killing that is important in resistance to tumor cell invasion. The liver has a major role in deletion of activated T cells and induction of tolerance to ingested and self-antigens. Disposal of waste molecules generated through inflammatory, immunologic, or general homeostatic processes is accomplished via the action of specific endocytic receptors on sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver. Age-related changes in sinusoids (pseudocapillarization), autophagy, and functions of various hepatic cell populations result in substantial alterations in many of these immunologically important functions. © 2012 Society of Toxicologic Pathology.

Boyce R.W.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2010

In regulatory toxicology studies, qualitative histopathological evaluation is the reference standard for assessment of test article-related morphological changes. In certain cases, quantitative analysis may be required to detect more subtle morphological changes, such as small changes in cell number. When the detection of subtle test article-related morphological changes is critical to the decision-making process, sensitive quantitative methods are needed. Design-based stereology provides the tools for obtaining accurate, precise quantitative structural data from tissue sections. These tools have the sensitivity necessary to detect small changes by combining statistical sampling principles with geometric analysis of the tissue microstructure. It differs from other morphometric methods based on tissue section analysis by providing estimates that are statistically valid, truly three-dimensional, and referent to the entire organ. Further, because the precision of the stereological analysis procedure can be predicted, studies can be designed and powered to detect subtle, potentially toxicologically significant changes. Although stereological methods have not been widely applied in toxicologic pathology, recent advances have made it feasible to implement these methods in a regulatory toxicology setting, particularly methods for estimation of total cell number.

Boyce J.T.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2010

In certain cases, quantitative tissue structural data derived from tissue sections may be required to make critical decisions in the drug development or risk assessment process. Most frequently, these questions center on test article-related effects on cell number. In this opinion article, the limitations of estimating cell number by standard cell or nuclear profile counts from sections/blocks collected for routine histopathology are discussed from both a scientific and regulatory perspective and contrasted with the robust, sensitive, statistically based methods of design-based stereology. Specific existing industry practices are reviewed. Recent advances in stereological theory, software, hardware, and automated immunohistochemical staining now make it feasible to implement unbiased stereological methods to assess test article-related effects on cell number in a regulatory toxicology setting. These design-based stereological methods for counting cells are recommended when the quantification of small changes in cell number is critical to the risk assessment or decision-making process. These methods provide levels of sensitivity and statistical guarantees of accuracy that no other currently available tissue section-based methodology can provide.

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