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Homelessness is a social phenomenon of increasing frequency in Germany and of high relevance for an inclusive society. Its expression is both caused psychosocially and moderated socioeconomically, often with negatively reinforcing feedback-loops. This overview describes health effects and strategies for improvement, using the example of the "Mainzer Modell". The comprehensive availability of adequate medical care are both an individual right and a social duty for an inclusive society. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG. Source

Hu X.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Hu X.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Hong L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Dean Smith M.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2016

Internal motions of proteins are essential to their function. The time dependence of protein structural fluctuations is highly complex, manifesting subdiffusive, non-exponential behaviour with effective relaxation times existing over many decades in time, from ps up to ∼10 2 s (refs,). Here, using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that, on timescales from 10 -12 to 10 -5 s, motions in single proteins are self-similar, non-equilibrium and exhibit ageing. The characteristic relaxation time for a distance fluctuation, such as inter-domain motion, is observation-time-dependent, increasing in a simple, power-law fashion, arising from the fractal nature of the topology and geometry of the energy landscape explored. Diffusion over the energy landscape follows a non-ergodic continuous time random walk. Comparison with single-molecule experiments suggests that the non-equilibrium self-similar dynamical behaviour persists up to timescales approaching the in vivo lifespan of individual protein molecules. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Vestner J.,Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim | Vestner J.,Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences | Fritsch S.,Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim | Rauhut D.,Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 °C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (<25 ng L-1 releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d5) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

The application of the logarithmic normal distribution (LND) in material testing is useful in cases of large variation coefficients. The general task is, to gain from a sample an information of the characteristic value of the tested material property. For that in ge neral the one-sided lower tolerance limit is calculated. German application standards and norms regulate this calculation for the use of the LND not in a correct way - the resulting characteristic values for the regular demanded confidence level of 75 % are too favourable. These calculations do not respect the different distributions with different obliquity of the tested attributes in the sample on one hand and of the mean values of all samples on the other one. This mistake in using the LND is shown in examples. A pragmatic intermediate solution is given, up to the necessary revision in the norms. © Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG. Source

Mattheis C.,University of Marburg | Wang H.,University of Marburg | Meister C.,Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences | Agarwal S.,University of Marburg
Macromolecular Bioscience | Year: 2013

The effect of converting ammonium into guanidine moieties, compared to other factors such as molecular weight or hydrophobicity, on the antibacterial activity is investigated for homo- and copolymers of 2-aminoethylmethacrylate in solution or coatings. Polymers are obtained by free radical polymerization, polymer-analogous guanidinylation is conducted with cyanamide; non-leaching immobilization is achieved by LBL assembly of homopolymers or crosslinking of functional sidegroups in copolymers. Antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis is determined by different standard methods. Guanidinylation improves antibacterial activity and speed as well as cytotoxicity of hydrophilic homo- and copolymers in solution or coatings. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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