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Chester, PA, United States

Widener University is a private, coeducational university located in Chester, Pennsylvania. Its main campus sits on 108 acres , just 14 miles southwest of Philadelphia. The university has three other campuses: two in Pennsylvania and one in Wilmington, Delaware.Founded as The Bullock School for Boys in 1821, the school was established in Wilmington, Delaware. It became the The Alsop School for Boys from 1846–1853, and then Hyatt's Select School for Boys from 1853-1859. Military instruction was introduced in 1858 and in 1859 the school changed its name to Delaware Military Academy. It moved to Pennsylvania in 1862 and became Pennsylvania Military Academy. It was known as Pennsylvania Military College after 1892 and adopted the Widener name in 1972.About 3,300 undergraduates and 3,300 graduate students attend Widener in eight degree-granting schools. The university offers associate's, baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral degrees in areas ranging from traditional liberal arts to professional programs. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Widener as a Doctoral/Research University and a Community Engagement Institution. Widener was ranked #181 in the National Universities category by US News & World Report for 2012. Wikipedia.


Odusami B.O.,Widener University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper provides insight into how oil price movements affect the consumption choices of U.S. households through the wealth channel. Lettau and Ludvigson (2001) show that while consumption, asset wealth, and labor income share a common long-term trend; they substantially deviate from one another in the short run. In this paper, I show that these transitory deviations can be explained by fluctuations in the price of crude oil. Linear and threshold multivariate autoregressive models are used to measure the oil price effect.Oil price effect on the consumption to aggregate wealth ratio is robust to monetary policy effect, sub-period effect, and econometric specifications of oil price effect. Generally speaking, higher (lower) oil price will lead to a decrease (increase) in the proportion of aggregate wealth consumed. In addition, the magnitude of the oil price effect is asymmetric and sub-period dependent. Oil price effect was higher before the 1980's than in succeeding periods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source


Goodrich K.R.,Widener University
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

Many species of Annonaceae are known for their distinctive, penetrating floral aromas. Numerous pollination studies have documented floral scents which probably play a key role in specialized pollination strategies. In particular, floral scents appear to play crucial roles in deceptive pollination strategies, contributing to floral mimicry of ripe or decaying fruits, fungi and, potentially, carrion or faeces. Occasionally, floral scent may advertise genuine floral rewards, as is the case for two species of Unonopsis pollinated by male euglossine bees. To date, ten studies have chemically characterized floral scent for 24 species representing 11 genera of Annonaceae. In this review, I discuss the chemical composition and diversity of the analysed floral scents in Annonaceae. I also summarize and discuss a wide range of (human) perceptual descriptions of floral scent found throughout the literature on Annonaceae. I have framed discussions of floral scent in Annonaceae in ecological and evolutionary contexts whenever possible. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London. Source


Nicosia M.A.,Widener University
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2013

The goal of this study was to quantify the shear rate in a simplified model of the oral cavity during bolus ejection. Parallel plate squeezing flow was used to approximate the action of the tongue against the palate as a bolus is ejected from the mouth and into the pharynx during a swallow. The current work quantified variations in shear rate with respect to two main effects - the relative degree of boundary slip for Newtonian boluses of varying viscosity. The results suggest that a single shear rate that describes oropharyngeal swallowing is a too simplistic concept. Rather variation in bolus viscosity, level of lubrication as well as others may have a strong effect on shear rate. Practical Applications: Mathematical modeling of oropharyngeal swallowing has the potential to play an important role in understanding the underlying mechanics of normal and abnormal swallowing, as well as in guiding the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for swallowing disorders. The long-term objective of this research is to develop a robust methodology for prediction of bolus flow characteristics in response to motions of the oropharyngeal structures, such as the tongue and pharyngeal walls. In addition to furthering our understanding of the normal swallow, such models could probe the physical basis of biomechanical treatment strategies, such as postural changes (e.g., chin-tuck) or dietary medications (commonly referred to as "thickened liquids"), as well as optimizing such strategies or suggesting new strategies altogether. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Schatz P.,Saint Josephs University | Sandel N.,Widener University
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The utility of postconcussion neurocognitive testing versus symptom data has been debated. The sensitivity of the desktop version of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) tool has been documented, but psychometric properties of the recently released online version of ImPACT have yet to be fully established. Purpose: To document the sensitivity of the online ImPACT version in samples of (1) symptomatic concussed (high school and collegiate) athletes, and (2) asymptomatic concussed (high school and collegiate) athletes suspected of hiding their concussions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 81 athletes observed to sustain a concussion by a certified athletic trainer or team physician, a finding that was confirmed with reported postconcussion symptoms, completed the ImPACT test within 3 days of injury. Data were compared with an independent sample of 81 athletes who completed preseason baseline cognitive assessments using ImPACT and who were matched (with concussed athletes) on the basis of sex, age, sport, concussion history, and absence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability. An independent group of 37 athletes who were also observed to sustain a concussion completed ImPACT within 3 days of injury. These athletes reported no postconcussion symptoms but were noted for suspected invalid response patterns on ImPACT (Impulse Control index >30 and Verbal Memory index <69%). The subscale data from the assessments (excluding those contributing to the aforementioned indices) were compared with a matched sample of 37 athletes who completed preseason baseline cognitive assessments in ImPACT (using the same criteria described above). Results: Data from the ImPACT online version yielded 91.4% sensitivity and 69.1% specificity. For asymptomatic athletes suspected of hiding their concussion, data from ImPACT yielded 94.6% sensitivity and 97.3% specificity. Conclusion: The online version of the ImPACT tool is a valid measure of neurocognitive performance at the acute stages of concussion, with high levels of sensitivity and specificity, even when athletes appear to be denying postconcussion symptoms. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Rothman M.S.,Widener University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. Source

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