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Madison, WI, United States

Stacey G.N.,UK National Institute for Biological Standards and Control | Crook J.M.,University of Wollongong | Crook J.M.,University of Melbourne | Hei D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ludwig T.,WiCell Research Institute
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2013

The generation of human embryonic stem cell banking networks has ensured that well-characterized and quality controlled stem cell lines are broadly accessible to researchers worldwide. Here, we provide recommendations for engaging these established networks in efforts to build similar resources for the distribution and collection of induced pluripotent stem cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Hu K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Yu J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Suknuntha K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Tian S.,Morgridge Institute for Research | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Reprogramming blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a novel tool for modeling blood diseases in vitro. However, the well-known limitations of current reprogramming technologies include low efficiency, slow kinetics, and transgene integration and residual expression. In the present study, we have demonstrated that iPSCs free of transgene and vector sequences could be generated from human BM and CB mononuclear cells using nonintegrating episomal vectors. The reprogramming described here is up to 100 times more efficient, occurs 1-3 weeks faster compared with the reprogramming of fibroblasts, and does not require isolation of progenitors or multiple rounds of transfection. Bloodderived iPSC lines lacked rearrangements of IGH and TCR, indicating that their origin is non-B- or non-T-lymphoid cells. When cocultured on OP9, bloodderived iPSCs could be differentiated back to the blood cells, albeit with lower efficiency compared to fibroblast-derived iPSCs. We also generated transgene-free iPSCs from the BM of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).CMLiPSCs showed a unique complex chromosomal translocation identified in marrow sample while displaying typical embryonic stem cell phenotype and pluripotent differentiation potential. This approach provides an opportunity to explore banked normal and diseased CB and BM samples without the limitations associated with virus-based methods.

Klim J.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Li L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wrighton P.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Piekarczyk M.S.,WiCell Research Institute | Kiessling L.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Nature Methods | Year: 2010

To exploit the full potential of human pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine, developmental biology and drug discovery, defined culture conditions are needed. Media of known composition that maintain human embryonic stem (hES) cells have been developed, but finding chemically defined, robust substrata has proven difficult. We used an array of self-assembled monolayers to identify peptide surfaces that sustain pluripotent stem cell self-renewal. The effective substrates displayed heparin-binding peptides, which can interact with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans and could be used with a defined medium to culture hES cells for more than 3 months. The resulting cells maintained a normal karyotype and had high levels of pluripotency markers. The peptides supported growth of eight pluripotent cell lines on a variety of scaffolds. Our results indicate that synthetic substrates that recognize cell-surface glycans can facilitate the long-term culture of pluripotent stem cells. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vodyanik M.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Yu J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang X.,WiCell Research Institute | Tian S.,Morgridge Institute for Research | And 5 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2010

Among the three embryonic germ layers, the mesoderm is a major source of the mesenchymal precursors giving rise to skeletal and connective tissues, but these precursors have not previously been identified and characterized. Using human embryonic stem cells directed toward mesendodermal differentiation, we show that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) originate from a population of mesodermal cells identified by expression of apelin receptor. In semisolid medium, these precursors form FGF2-dependent compact spheroid colonies containing mesenchymal cells with a transcriptional profile representative of mesoderm-derived embryonic mesenchyme. When transferred to adherent cultures, individual colonies give rise to MSC lines with chondro-, osteo-, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Although the MSC lines lacked endothelial potential, endothelial cells could be derived from the mesenchymal colonies, suggesting that, similar to hematopoietic cells, MSCs arise from precursors with angiogenic potential. Together, these studies identified a common precursor of mesenchymal and endothelial cells, mesenchymoangioblast, as the source of mesoderm-derived MSCs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Bhatia N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Demmer T.A.,Des Moines University | Sharma A.K.,Covance Laboratories Inc. | Elcheva I.,WiCell Research Institute | Spiegelman V.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2011

Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. Exposure to UVB radiation is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. SCF β-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase has been found to be involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and transformation. Aberrant up-regulation of beta-transducin repeats-containing proteins (β-TrCP) is often found in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We have previously demonstrated that β-TrCP2 is over-expressed in chemically induced mouse skin tumors [1]. Various cellular stress stimuli, including UVB, induce an increase in β-TrCP1 mRNA and protein levels in human cells [2]. We have previously shown that inhibition of β-TrCP function, by induction of dominant negative β-TrCP2 (β-TrCP2 ΔF), in vitro in hTERT immortalized normal keratinocytes, results in increase in UVB induced apoptosis [3]. We have generated transgenic mice with inducible, selective expression of dominant negative β-TrCP2 in epidermis with the Keratin 5 promoter (K5-rTA × TRE-HA-β-TrCP ΔF). Here we report that inhibition of β-TrCP function in mouse epidermis results in decrease in UVB-induced edema, hyperplasia, and inflammatory response and increment in UVB-induced apoptosis in skin. Our results suggest that β-TrCP may be an essential player in UVB induced responses in skin and can be a potential therapeutic target for skin cancer.

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