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Beers J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gulbranson D.R.,Morgridge Institute for Research | Gulbranson D.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | George N.,WiCell Institute | And 7 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

This protocol describes an EDTA-based passaging procedure to be used with chemically defined E8 medium that serves as a tool for basic and translational research into human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). In this protocol, passaging one six-well or 10-cm plate of cells takes about 6-7 min. This enzyme-free protocol achieves maximum cell survival without enzyme neutralization, centrifugation or drug treatment. It also allows for higher throughput, requires minimal material and limits contamination. Here we describe how to produce a consistent E8 medium for routine maintenance and reprogramming and how to incorporate the EDTA-based passaging procedure into human induced PSC (iPSC) derivation, colony expansion, cryopreservation and teratoma formation. This protocol has been successful in routine cell expansion, and efficient for expanding large-volume cultures or a large number of cells with preferential dissociation of PSCs. Effective for all culture stages, this procedure provides a consistent and universal approach to passaging human PSCs in E8 medium. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Salick M.R.,Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery | Salick M.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Napiwocki B.N.,Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery | Napiwocki B.N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 12 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

In this study, human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were seeded onto controlled two-dimensional micropatterned features, and an improvement in sarcomere formation and cell alignment was observed in specific feature geometries. High-resolution photolithography techniques and microcontact printing were utilized to produce features of various rectangular geometries, with areas ranging from 2500μm2 to 160,000μm2. The microcontact printing method was used to pattern non-adherent poly(ethylene glycol) regions on gold coated glass slides. Matrigel and fibronectin extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were layered onto the gold-coated glass slides, providing a controlled geometry for cell adhesion. We used small molecule-based differentiation and an antibiotic purification step to produce a pure population of immature cardiomyocytes from H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We then seeded this pure population of human cardiomyocytes onto the micropatterned features of various sizes and observed how the cardiomyocytes remodeled their myofilament structure in response to the feature geometries. Immunofluorescence was used to measure α-actinin expression, and phalloidin stains were used to detect actin presence in the patterned cells. Analysis of nuclear alignment was also used to determine how cell direction was influenced by the features. The seeded cells showed clear alignment with the features, dependent on the width rather than the overall aspect ratio of the features. It was determined that features with widths between 30μm and 80μm promoted highly aligned cardiomyocytes with a dramatic increase in sarcomere alignment relative to the long axis of the pattern. This creation of highly-aligned cell aggregates with robust sarcomere structures holds great potential in advancing cell-based pharmacological studies, and will help researchers to understand the means by which ECM geometries can affect myofilament structure and maturation in hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Raval K.K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Raval K.K.,WiCell Institute | Tao R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | White B.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Infantile-onset Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the complete loss of lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity, which results in lysosomal glycogen accumulation and prominent cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology. The mechanism by which loss of GAA activity causes cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. We reprogrammed fibroblasts from patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were differentiated to cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM). Pompe iPSC-CMs had undetectable GAA activity and pathognomonic glycogen-filled lysosomes. Nonetheless, Pompe and control iPSC-CMs exhibited comparable contractile properties in engineered cardiac tissue. Impaired autophagy has been implicated in Pompe skeletal muscle; however, control and Pompe iPSC-CMs had comparable clearance rates of LC3-II-detected autophagosomes. Unexpectedly, the lysosome-associated membrane proteins, LAMP1 and LAMP2, from Pompe iPSC-CMs demonstrated higher electrophoretic mobility compared with control iPSC-CMs. Brefeldin A induced disruption of the Golgi in control iPSC-CMs reproduced the higher mobility forms of the LAMPs, suggesting that Pompe iPSC-CMs produce LAMPs lacking appropriate glycosylation. Isoelectric focusing studies revealed that LAMP2 has a more alkaline pI in Pompe compared with control iPSC-CMs due largely to hyposialylation. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of N-linked glycans demonstrated reduced diversity of multiantennary structures and the major presence of a trimannose complex glycan precursor in Pompe iPSC-CMs. These data suggest that Pompe cardiomyopathy has a glycan processing abnormality and thus shares features with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies observed in the congenital disorders of glycosylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Zhang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang J.,WiCell Institute | Klos M.,University of Michigan | Wilson G.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 25 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

RATIONALE: Cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are increasingly being used for cardiovascular research, including disease modeling, and hold promise for clinical applications. Current cardiac differentiation protocols exhibit variable success across different PSC lines and are primarily based on the application of growth factors. However, extracellular matrix is also fundamentally involved in cardiac development from the earliest morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a more effective protocol for cardiac differentiation of human PSCs by using extracellular matrix in combination with growth factors known to promote cardiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: PSCs were cultured as monolayers on Matrigel, an extracellular matrix preparation, and subsequently overlayed with Matrigel. The matrix sandwich promoted an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as in gastrulation with the generation of N-cadherin-positive mesenchymal cells. Combining the matrix sandwich with sequential application of growth factors (Activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor) generated CMs with high purity (up to 98%) and yield (up to 11 CMs/input PSC) from multiple PSC lines. The resulting CMs progressively matured over 30 days in culture based on myofilament expression pattern and mitotic activity. Action potentials typical of embryonic nodal, atrial, and ventricular CMs were observed, and monolayers of electrically coupled CMs modeled cardiac tissue and basic arrhythmia mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic extracellular matrix application promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human PSCs and complemented growth factor signaling to enable robust cardiac differentiation. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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