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Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Shin H.-R.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Forman D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. © 2010 UICC. Source


Ma Z.,Global Alliance for TB Drug Development | Lienhardt C.,WHO | McIlleron H.,University of Cape Town | Nunn A.J.,Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit | Wang X.,Tianjin Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Drugs for tuberculosis are inadequate to address the many inherent and emerging challenges of treatment. In the past decade, ten compounds have progressed into the clinical development pipeline, including six new compounds specifically developed for tuberculosis. Despite this progress, the global drug pipeline for tuberculosis is still insufficient to address the unmet needs of treatment. Additional and sustainable efforts, and funding are needed to further improve the pipeline. The key challenges in the development of new treatments are the needs for novel drug combinations, new trial designs, studies in paediatric populations, increased clinical trial capacity, clear regulatory guidelines, and biomarkers for prediction of long-term outcome. Despite substantial progress in efforts to control tuberculosis, the global burden of this disease remains high. To eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050, all responsible parties need to work together to strengthen the global antituberculosis drug pipeline and support the development of new antituberculosis drug regimens. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hallal P.C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Andersen L.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Andersen L.B.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Bull F.C.,University of Western Australia | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31.1% (95% CI 30.9-31.2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17.0% (16.8-17.2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80.3% (80.1-80.5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes to increase activity levels and to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. Source


The social model of disability has been fruitful in promoting human rights of people with disabilities, but has been associated with a downplaying of the health dimension of disability. Adequate accounts of disability should make space for medical, psychological, social, and political factors in the lives of people with disabilities. Disability is almost always connected to a health condition; civil rights law needs to be anchored in a robust definition of the protected class; failure to meet health needs constitutes an important aspect of the discrimination faced by people with disabilities. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Soerjomataram I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Lortet-Tieulent J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Parkin D.M.,University of Oxford | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Country comparisons that consider the effect of fatal and non-fatal disease outcomes are needed for health-care planning. We calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to estimate the global burden of cancer in 2008. Methods We used population-based data, mostly from cancer registries, for incidence, mortality, life expectancy, disease duration, and age at onset and death, alongside proportions of patients who were treated and living with sequelae or regarded as cured, to calculate years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). We used YLLs and YLDs to derive DALYs for 27 sites of cancers in 184 countries in 12 world regions. Estimates were grouped into four categories based on a country's human development index (HDI). We applied zero discounting and uniform age weighting, and age-standardised rates to enable cross-country and regional comparisons. Findings Worldwide, an estimated 169·3 million years of healthy life were lost because of cancer in 2008. Colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancers were the main contributors to total DALYs in most world regions and caused 18-50% of the total cancer burden. We estimated an additional burden of 25% from infection-related cancers (liver, stomach, and cervical) in sub-Saharan Africa, and 27% in eastern Asia. We noted substantial global differences in the cancer profile of DALYs by country and region; however, YLLs were the most important component of DALYs in all countries and for all cancers, and contributed to more than 90% of the total burden. Nonetheless, low-resource settings had consistently higher YLLs (as a proportion of total DALYs) than did high-resource settings. Interpretation Age-adjusted DALYs lost from cancer are substantial, irrespective of world region. The consistently larger proportions of YLLs in low HDI than in high HDI countries indicate substantial inequalities in prognosis after diagnosis, related to degree of human development. Therefore, radical improvement in cancer care is needed in low-resource countries. Source

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