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Walla Walla East, WA, United States

Whitman College is a private liberal arts college located in Walla Walla, Washington. Initially founded as a seminary by a territorial legislative charter in 1859, the school became a four-year degree-granting institution in 1883. Whitman College is accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges and competes athletically in the NCAA Division III Northwest Conference. The school offers 45 majors and 32 minors in the liberal arts and science, and has a student to faculty ratio of 9:1. Whitman was the first college in the Pacific Northwest to install a Phi Beta Kappa chapter, and the first school in the United States to require comprehensive exams for graduation. Whitman was ranked 37th in the nation in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report list of Best Liberal Arts Colleges. Wikipedia.


Prull M.W.,Whitman College
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition | Year: 2010

The identification-production framework suggests that aging is associated with a decline in production forms of repetition priming, particularly under test conditions that maximize response competition. The present study examined this prediction by testing young and healthy older adults in a single-encoding version of the verb generation task in which some items had one dominant verb response (low competition) or had no such dominant response (high competition). Further analyses examined whether priming and error rates were related to performance on neuropsychological tests purported to measure frontal lobe functioning. Priming was invariant across age groups and was not related to frontal lobe status in older adults, but frontal lobe status did predict task performance: low-frontal older adults made more errors than high-frontal older adults, particularly for high-competition items and items with high association strength. These results are not consistent with the identification-production framework, but are consistent with the conclusions that (a) aging is associated with invariance in the processes that support repetition priming in the verb generation task and (b) frontal lobe status in aging is related to verb generation performance. © 2010 Psychology Press. Source


Chatterjee N.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Nicolaysen K.,Whitman College
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2012

The Kerguelen Plateau is a submarine, Cretaceous Large Igneous Province in the southern Indian Ocean. Drilling on Elan Bank, a western salient of the Kerguelen Plateau, yielded a ~26 m section of fluvial conglomerate intercalated with basalt. Chemical dating of monazite within garnet and matrix monazite in metapelitic clasts from the conglomerate indicates that high-grade metamorphism of the pelitic protolith occurred between 785 ± 12 and 694 ± 18 Ma. A calculated P-T pseudosection indicates that the observed core-to-inner rim compositional zoning in garnet is consistent with P/T decrease from 10.2 kb/760°C to 6.2 kb/560°C. In an Early Cretaceous paleogeographic reconstruction, the Elan Bank drill site is located on a SSW continuation of the Eastern Indian Tectonic Zone (EITZ), a 876-784 Ma, NNE-SSW metamorphic belt with sinistral shear zones in eastern India. The retrograde P-T path of the Elan Bank metapelitic clast overlaps with that of the EITZ metapelite, and the Elan Bank monazite chemical dates and previously determined 824-675 Ma U-Pb isotope monazite dates by the TIMS method are remarkably similar to the monazite chemical dates from the EITZ metapelites and high-grade metamorphic rocks from the eastern margin of the Eastern Ghats Belt. Based on the demonstrable affinity of metamorphic, geochronologic, and spatial data, this study concludes that the EITZ was likely a continuous, ~1,800-km-long tectono-metamorphic belt in the Rodinia supercontinent stretching from eastern India through the Eastern Ghats to the basement of Elan Bank and probably to the Rayner Complex of East Antarctica. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Evolutionary biologists seek to explain the origin and maintenance of phenotypes, and a substantial portion of this research is accomplished by thorough study of individual species. For instance, many researchers study individual species to understand evolution of ornamental traits which appear to be products of sexual selection. I explored our understanding of sexual ornaments in a well-studied vertebrate species that may serve as a case study for research programs in evolutionary biology. I attempted to located all published papers examining plumage colour and variables related to sexual selection hypotheses in a common European songbird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Researchers have estimated over 1200 statistical relationships with plumage colour of blue tits in 52 studies. However, of the approximately 1000 main-effect relationships from the 48 studies that are candidates for inclusion in this meta-analysis, more than 400 were reported without details of strength and direction. Circumstantial evidence suggests that an unknown number of other estimated effects remain unpublished. Missing information is a substantial barrier to interpretation of these papers and to meta-analytic synthesis. Examination and analysis of funnel plots indicated that unpublished effects may be a biased sample of all effects, especially for comparisons of plumage colour to age and individual quality, and possibly also to measures of mate choice. Further, type I error was likely elevated by the large number of statistical comparisons evaluated, the frequent use of iterative model-building procedures, and a willingness to interpret a wide variety of results as support for a hypothesis. Type I errors were made more problematic because blue tit plumage researchers only rarely have attempted to replicate important findings in their own work or that of others. Replication is essential to drawing robust scientific conclusions, especially in probabilistic systems with moderate to weak effects or a likelihood of bias. Last, researchers studying blue tit plumage have often developed ad hoc explanations for deviations of results from their predictions. Revising hypotheses in light of data is appropriate, but these revised hypotheses were rarely tested with new data. The only highly robust conclusion supported by meta-analysis is that male blue tits have plumage that reflects more light in the ultraviolet and yellow wavelengths than the plumage of females. Various other effects, including condition-dependence of plumage colour expression and a tendency for females to adjust the sex ratio of their offspring in response to male colour, remain uncertain. These obstacles to progress in the blue tit plumage literature are likely common in evolutionary biology, and so I recommend changes to incentive structures which may improve progress towards scientific understanding in this discipline. © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Source


Gresham M.I.,Whitman College | Zurek K.M.,University of Michigan
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We examine the consistency of light dark matter (DM) elastic scattering in CoGeNT, DAMA, and CDMS-silicon in light of constraints from XENON, CDMS, LUX, PICASSO and COUPP. We consider a variety of operators that have been employed to reconcile anomalies with constraints, including anapole, magnetic dipole, momentum-dependent, and isospin-violating DM. We find that elastic scattering through these alternative operators does not substantially reduce the tension between the signals and the null constraints for operators where at least two of the three purported signals map onto a common space in the DM mass-scattering cross-section plane. Taking a choice of the scintillation efficiency that lies at the -1σ region of the Manzur et al. measurement relieves tension between signals and the LUX constraint - in particular for a magnetic dipole interaction and a xenophobic interaction (though for the latter the signal regions do not substantially overlap). We also find that modest changes in the halo model do not alter this result. We conclude that, even relaxing the assumption about the type of elastic scattering interaction and taking a conservative choice for the scintillation efficiency, LUX and the results from other null experiments remain in tension with a light DM elastic scattering explanation of direct detection anomalies. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Gresham M.I.,Whitman College | Zurek K.M.,University of Michigan
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We examine the effect of nuclear response functions, as laid out by Fitzpatrick et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2013) 004], on dark matter (DM) direct detection in the context of well-motivated UV completions, including electric and magnetic dipoles, anapole, spin-orbit, and pseudoscalar-mediated DM. Together, these encompass five of the six nuclear responses extracted from the nonrelativistic effective theory of Fitzpatrick et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2013) 004] (with the sixth difficult to UV complete), with two of the six combinations corresponding to standard spin-independent and spin-dependent responses. For constraints from existing direct detection experiments, we find that only the COUPP constraint, due to its heavy iodine target with large angular momentum and an unpaired spin, and its large energy range sensitivity, is substantially modified by the new responses compared to what would be inferred using the standard form factors to model the energy dependence of the response. For heavy targets such as xenon and germanium, the behavior of the new nuclear responses as recoil energy increases can be substantially different from that of the standard responses, but this has almost no impact on the constraints derived from experiments such as LUX, XENON100, and CDMS since the maximum nuclear recoil energy detected in these experiments is relatively low. We simulate mock data for 80 and 250 GeV DM candidates utilizing the new nuclear responses to highlight how they might affect a putative signal, and find the new responses are most important for highly momentum-suppressed interactions such as the magnetic dipole or pseudoscalar-mediated interaction when the target is relatively heavy (such as xenon and iodine). © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

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