Whiteley Martin Research Center

Penrith, Australia

Whiteley Martin Research Center

Penrith, Australia
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Liao Q.-J.,Medjaden Bioscience Ltd | Zhang Y.-Y.,University of Sichuan | Fan Y.-C.,Shandong University | Zheng M.-H.,Wenzhou University | And 7 more authors.
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2017

Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman’s rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% (446/9986) and 5.5% (832/15,127), respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% (39.8 ± 23.5% in 2010; 40.2 ± 24.5% in 2015) of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in China. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Nagaraja V.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Eslick G.D.,Whiteley Martin Research Center
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Carcinoma of the gall-bladder is the fifth commonest gastrointestinal tract cancer and is endemic in several countries. An association of chronic typhoid carriage and carcinoma of the gall-bladder has been reported. Aim To clarify whether chronic Salmonella typhi carrier state is associated with carcinoma of the gall-bladder. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Web of Science. Original data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results Of the articles selected, only 17 studies met full criteria for analysis. The overall OR for chronic S. typhi carrier state was 4.28(95% CI: 1.84-9.96). Most of the studies were from South Asia especially India and China. When a subgroup analysis was performed according to region, a significant association was observed in South-East Asia (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.87-5.94, P value <0.01). Chronic S. typhi carrier state was associated with carcinoma of the gall-bladder based on detection methods of S. typhi antibody levels (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 2.48-5.00, P value <0.01) and even more so on culture (OR: 4.14, 95% CI: 2.41-7.12, P value <0.01). The association was prominent in controls without gallstones (OR: 5.86, 95% CI: 3.84-8.95, P value <0.01) when compared with controls with gallstones (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.92-3.83, P value <0.01). Conclusions Chronic S. typhi carrier state is an important risk factor among patients with carcinoma of the gall-bladder. Given the high risk associated with this carrier state, management options should include either elective cholecystectomy or careful monitoring using ultrasound. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Manoharan S.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Nagaraja V.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Eslick G.D.,Whiteley Martin Research Center
Oral Oncology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Several studies have investigated the relationship between the use of dentures and the duration of denture use and cancer development. Of particular interest is whether ill-fitting dentures increase the likelihood of the development of oral cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between dentures and the development of cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched several databases (PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) to find published papers on the topic. In particular, the duration of denture use and the comfort and fit of the dentures were investigated. Results: The use of dentures by itself is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01-1.99). In addition, ill-fitting dentures appears to substantially increase the risk of developing cancer (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.48-6.13). In addition, there was no link between the duration of denture use and cancer development. This might be due to the arbitrary nature of what we defined as short and long term denture use and may have been affected by the inconsistency in time categorization between different studies. Conclusion: Ill-fitting dentures are a risk factor for the development of oral cancer, greater patient education and regular checking of dentures by dentists should be undertaken as a prevention measure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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