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Penrith, Australia

Nagaraja V.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Eslick G.D.,Whiteley Martin Research Center
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Carcinoma of the gall-bladder is the fifth commonest gastrointestinal tract cancer and is endemic in several countries. An association of chronic typhoid carriage and carcinoma of the gall-bladder has been reported. Aim To clarify whether chronic Salmonella typhi carrier state is associated with carcinoma of the gall-bladder. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Web of Science. Original data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results Of the articles selected, only 17 studies met full criteria for analysis. The overall OR for chronic S. typhi carrier state was 4.28(95% CI: 1.84-9.96). Most of the studies were from South Asia especially India and China. When a subgroup analysis was performed according to region, a significant association was observed in South-East Asia (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.87-5.94, P value <0.01). Chronic S. typhi carrier state was associated with carcinoma of the gall-bladder based on detection methods of S. typhi antibody levels (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 2.48-5.00, P value <0.01) and even more so on culture (OR: 4.14, 95% CI: 2.41-7.12, P value <0.01). The association was prominent in controls without gallstones (OR: 5.86, 95% CI: 3.84-8.95, P value <0.01) when compared with controls with gallstones (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.92-3.83, P value <0.01). Conclusions Chronic S. typhi carrier state is an important risk factor among patients with carcinoma of the gall-bladder. Given the high risk associated with this carrier state, management options should include either elective cholecystectomy or careful monitoring using ultrasound. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Manoharan S.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Nagaraja V.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Eslick G.D.,Whiteley Martin Research Center
Oral Oncology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Several studies have investigated the relationship between the use of dentures and the duration of denture use and cancer development. Of particular interest is whether ill-fitting dentures increase the likelihood of the development of oral cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between dentures and the development of cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched several databases (PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) to find published papers on the topic. In particular, the duration of denture use and the comfort and fit of the dentures were investigated. Results: The use of dentures by itself is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01-1.99). In addition, ill-fitting dentures appears to substantially increase the risk of developing cancer (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.48-6.13). In addition, there was no link between the duration of denture use and cancer development. This might be due to the arbitrary nature of what we defined as short and long term denture use and may have been affected by the inconsistency in time categorization between different studies. Conclusion: Ill-fitting dentures are a risk factor for the development of oral cancer, greater patient education and regular checking of dentures by dentists should be undertaken as a prevention measure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tio M.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Andrici J.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Cox M.R.,Whiteley Martin Research Center | Eslick G.D.,Whiteley Martin Research Center
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2014

There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of folate on the risk of developing prostate cancer. We performed a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of folate blood levels and folate intake, and the risk of prostate cancer. Four electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, Embase and Current Contents Connect) were searched to 11 October 2013, with no language restrictions for observational studies that measured folate intake or blood levels and the risk of prostate cancer. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. The dietary folate meta-analysis comprising 11 studies with 15 336 cases and a total sample size of 146 782 found no statistically significant association with prostate cancer, with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.89-1.06). The total folate meta-analysis comprising of 5 studies with 7114 cases and a total sample size of 93 781 also found no statistically significant association with prostate cancer, with an OR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.82-1.19). The blood folate meta-analysis comprising of seven studies with 6122 cases and a total sample size of 10 232 found an increased risk of prostate cancer with high blood folate levels, with an OR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.06-1.93). There was significant heterogeneity (I 2 =79.5%, P<0.01). Removal of an outlier study removed the heterogeneity (I 2 =0.0%, P=0.54) and the association remained significant with an OR of 1.14 (95% CI 1.02-1.28). Dietary and total folate intake do not appear to be significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer. High blood folate levels are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. These conclusions are limited by the predominance of included studies originating from developed countries with mostly Caucasian populations. Further research in populations with a high prevalence of non-Caucasian backgrounds is needed. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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