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Parkes G.,MRAG Americas Inc. | Swasey J.H.,MRAG Americas Inc. | Underwood F.M.,Whiteknights | Fitzgerald T.P.,Environmental Defense Fund | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2016

Certification of fisheries to a sustainability standard is designed to measure and potentially improve their performance. Catch share and other rights-based fisheries management programs are intended to align the economic incentives of fishermen with conservation goals, and hence increase the likelihood that these goals will be met. Given documented performance improvements from fisheries using catch share management, one might reasonably expect catch share managed fisheries to perform better against a sustainability standard than those managed using more conventional methods. This study investigated differences in the assessment scores of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fisheries managed with and without catch shares. Using Bayesian Belief Networks to model the complex relationships between fishery characteristics, management and MSC scores, our results show that fisheries using catch share management had a higher probability of exceeding a threshold level for several Performance Indicators. These differences were also apparent at higher aggregate scoring levels, which represent an aggregate of Performance Indicator scores. Higher-scoring MSC certified fisheries were about twice as likely to be managed with catch shares as without. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Carr G.,Vienna University of Technology | Nortcliff S.,Whiteknights | Potter R.B.,University of Reading
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2010

Reclaimed water provides an important contribution to the water balance in water-scarce Jordan, but the quality of this water presents both benefits and challenges. Careful management of reclaimed water is required to maximize the nutrient benefits while minimizing the salinity risks. This work uses a multi-disciplinary research approach to show that soil response to irrigation with reclaimed water is a function of the management strategies adopted on the farm by the water user. The adoption of management methods to maintain soil productivity can be seen to be a result of farmers' awareness to potentially plant-toxic ions in the irrigation water (70% of Jordan Valley farmers identified salinization as a hazard from irrigation with reclaimed water). However, the work also suggests that farmers' management capacity is affected by the institutional management of water. About a third (35%) of farmers in the Jordan Valley claimed that their ability to manage salinization was limited by water shortages. Organizational interviews revealed that institutional awareness of soil management challenges was quite high (34% of interviewees described salinization as a risk from water reuse), but strategies to address this challenge at the institutional level require greater development. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Giesselmann J.,University of Stuttgart | Pryer T.,Whiteknights
BIT Numerical Mathematics | Year: 2016

We give an a priori analysis of a semi-discrete discontinuous Galerkin scheme approximating solutions to a model of multiphase elastodynamics which involves an energy density depending not only on the strain but also the strain gradient. A key component in the analysis is the reduced relative entropy stability framework developed in Giesselmann (SIAM J Math Anal 46(5):3518–3539, 2014). The estimate we derive is optimal in the (Formula presented.) norm for the strain and the (Formula presented.) norm for the velocity, where dG is an appropriate mesh dependent (Formula presented.) -like space. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sarsby J.,Whiteknights | Sarsby J.,University of Birmingham | Towers M.W.,Whiteknights | Stain C.,University of Reading | And 5 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2012

Glucosinolates are multi-functional plant secondary metabolites which play a vital role in plant defence and are, as dietary compounds, important to human health and livestock well-being. Knowledge of the tissue-specific regulation of their biosynthesis and accumulation is essential for plant breeding programs. Here, we report that in Arabidopsis thaliana, glucosinolates are accumulated differentially in specific cells of reproductive organs. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), distribution patterns of three selected compounds, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl (glucoraphanin), indol-3-ylmethyl (glucobrassicin), and 4-benzoyloxybutyl glucosinolates, were mapped in the tissues of whole flower buds, sepals and siliques. The results show that tissue localization patterns of aliphatic glucosinolate glucoraphanin and 4-benzoyloxybutyl glucosinolate were similar, but indole glucosinolate glucobrassicin had different localisation, indicating a possible difference in function. The high resolution images obtained by a complementary approach, cryo-SEM Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (cryo-SEM-EDX), confirmed increased concentration of sulphur in areas with elevated amounts of glucosinolates, and allowed identifying the cell types implicated in accumulation of glucosinolates. High concentration of sulphur was found in S-cells adjacent to the phloem in pedicels and siliques, indicating the presence of glucosinolates. Moreover, both MALDI MSI and cryo-SEM-EDX analyses indicated accumulation of glucosinolates in cells on the outer surface of the sepals, suggesting that a layer of glucosinolate-accumulating epidermal cells protects the whole of the developing flower, in addition to the S-cells, which protect the phloem. This research demonstrates the high potential of MALDI MSI for understanding the cell-specific compartmentation of plant metabolites and its regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bryant L.,Whiteknights | Flatley B.,Whiteknights | Patole C.,Whiteknights | Brown G.D.,Whiteknights | Cramer R.,Whiteknights
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Background: MS-based proteomics was applied to the analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua, exploiting a recently published contig sequence database (Graham et al. (2010) Science 327, 328-331) and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. A. annua is the predominant natural source of artemisinin, the precursor for artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which are the WHO-recommended treatment for P. falciparum malaria. Results: The comparison of various databases containing A. annua sequences (NCBInr/viridiplantae, UniProt/viridiplantae, UniProt/A. annua, an A. annua trichome Trinity contig database, the above contig database and another A. annua EST database) revealed significant differences in respect of their suitability for proteomic analysis, showing that an organism-specific database that has undergone extensive curation, leading to longer contig sequences, can greatly increase the number of true positive protein identifications, while reducing the number of false positives. Compared to previously published data an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched A. annua samples, including proteins which are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of artemisinin, as well as other highly abundant proteins, which suggest additional enzymatic processes occurring within the trichomes that are important for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. Conclusions: The newly gained information allows for the possibility of an enzymatic pathway, utilizing peroxidases, for the less well understood final stages of artemisinin's biosynthesis, as an alternative to the known non-enzymatic in vitro conversion of dihydroartemisinic acid to artemisinin. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000703. © 2015 Bryant et al.

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